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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables and outcome of patients classified by serum chloride status

From: Hyperchloremia and moderate increase in serum chloride are associated with acute kidney injury in severe sepsis and septic shock patients

Variable Hyperchloremia
N = 98
No hyperchloremia
N = 142
p
Demographics
 Age, yr, mean ± SD 57.5 ± 15.1 52.9 ± 18.4 0.05
 Male, % 46.9 55.6 0.38
Underlying diseases
 Hypertension, % 36.7 28.2 0.074
 Ischemic heart disease, % 6.1 5.6 0.65
 CHF, % 4.1 8.5 0.10
 DM, % 21.4 21.1 0.71
 COPD, % 21.4 18.3 0.086
 Cirrhosis, % 7.1 4.9 0.082
 Malignancy, % 4.1 5.6 0.20
 HIV, % 11.2 9.2 0.56
 Chronic steroid treatment, % 5.1 6.3 0.91
Clinical parameters at presentation
 MAP, mean ± SD 85 ± 21 89 ± 17 0.12
 HR, mean ± SD 104 ± 22 96 ± 21 0.003a
 Lactate, mean ± SD 2.9 ± 2.8 2.5 ± 2.4 0.29
 Creatinine(mg/dL), median (IQR) 1.0 (0.7-1.4) 0.9 (0.4-1.4) 0.49
 APACHE II score, mean ± SD 11.3 ± 5.0 7.8 ± 5.4 <0.001a
Clinical parameters at 24 hr
 Vasopressor, % 31 11 <0.001a
 Mechanical ventilator, % 64 32 <0.001a
 Fluid intake, mean ± SD 4959 ± 3,417 4691 ± 2,341 0.71
 Urine output, mean ± SD 2416 ± 1,146 2554 ± 1,463 0.644
Chloride parameters
 Initial chloride ([Cl-]0), mean ± SD 104.3 ± 7.7 103.7 ± 4.6 0.51
 Maximal Cl in 48 hours ([Cl-]max) 104.4 ± 3.7 114.4 ± 3.6 <0.001a
 Increase in serum Cl (Δ[Cl-]) 3.2 ± 4.2 6.1 ± 5.0 <0.001a
Clinical outcome
 AKI, % 85.7 47.9 <0.001a
 RRT, % 7.1 3.5 0.206
 28-day mortality, % 6.1 1.4 0.066
  1. SD standard deviation, CHF congestive heart failure, DM diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MAP mean arterial pressure, HR heart rate, IQR interquartile rate, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, [Cl - ] 0 initial chloride concentration, [Cl - ] max maximal chloride concentration in the first 48 hours, Δ[Cl - ] increase in serum chloride; AKI acute kidney injury, RRT renal replacement therapy
  2. aIndicates statistical significance, p < 0.05