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Table 1 Neonatal studies of the microcirculation using orthogonal polarization spectral, sidestream dark field or incident dark field imaging

From: The vulnerable microcirculation in the critically ill pediatric patient

Study N Age group Technique/site Disease Intervention Outcome
Genzel-Boroviczény et al. 2002 [47] 37 Preterm/term OPS/skin - - Feasibility study; RBC velocity increases in preterm infants, correlated with a decrease in Hb
Genzel-Boroviczény et al. 2004 [61] 13 Preterm OPS/skin Anemia RBC transfusion FCD improves at least 24 h
Kroth et al. 2008 [62] 25 Preterm OPS/skin - - FCD decreases in first 4 weeks of life, correlated with Hb levels and incubator temperature
Top et al. 2009 [70] 14 0–18 days OPS/buccal Respiratory failure - FCD is decreased compared with non-ventilated controls, VA-ECMO improves FCD
Weidlich et al. 2009 [87] 25 Preterm OPS/skin Infection - FCD decreases 1 day before clinical signs of infection
Hiedl et al. 2010 [81] 25 Preterm SDF/skin PDA PDA closure Reduces FCD with PDA, recovery of FCD after closure of PDA
Ergenekon et al. 2011 [63] 15 Term SDF/skin Polycythemia PET PET improves FCD
D’Souza et al. 2011 [111] 115 Preterm/term OPS/skin LBW - FCD is increased in LBW compared with normal birth weight infants
Top et al. 2012 [73] 21 Term OPS/buccal Respiratory failure VA-ECMO FCD is maintained but not immediately improved following initiation of VA-ECMO
Ergenekon et al. 2013 [112] 14 Term SDF/skin Asphyxia TH Flow is impaired compared with controls, flow improves after re-warming
Alba-Alejandre et al. 2013 [113] 47 Term OPS/skin Infection   Flow is decreased during infection, no difference in FCD
Schwepcke et al. 2013 [114] 21 Preterm SDF/skin Hypotension   FCD is increased in hypotensive neonates 6 h after birth; it subsequently normalized to normotensive control levels
Raghuraman et al. 2013 [115] 141 Preterm/term OPS/skin - - FCD is increased in twins compared with singletons, low birth weight was associated with lower FCD
Buijs et al. 2014 [74] 56 Term SDF/buccal CDH - Loss of hemodynamic coherence; severely impaired MC after dopamine predicts need for the addition of (nor)epinephrine
Van den Berg et al. 2014 [116] 28 Term SDF - - Buccal measurements of vessel density are reproducible, cutaneous are not reproducible
Van Elteren et al. 2015 [68] 20 Preterm SDF/IDF - - IDF is superior compared with SDF in vessel visualization, visualization of perfusion, and image quality score
  1. CDH congenital diaphragmatic hernia, FCD functional capillary density, Hb hemoglobin, IDF incident dark field imaging, LBW low birth weight, OPS orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, PDA persistent ductus arteriosus, PET partial exchange transfusion, RBC red blood cell, SDF sidestream dark field imaging, TH therapeutic hypothermia, VA-ECMO veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation