Skip to main content

Table 2 The endothelial surface layer

From: Regulation of blood flow and volume exchange across the microcirculation

A) Functions
 • Regulation of vascular permeability
 • Mediation of shear stress
 • Attenuation of leukocyte and platelet adhesion
 • Binding of cytokines/chemokines, hormones, etc.
B) Scenarios of damage
 • Ischemia/reperfusion, hypoxia, shock
 • Inflammation
 • Volume loading
 • Chronic heart failure (due to release of natriuretic peptides)
 • Atherosclerosis and diabetes
 • Radiation (?)
C) Present and potential future strategies of clinical protection
 • Plasma albumin in organ transplantation
 • Hydrocortisone and mast cell inhibition
 • Direct cytokine inhibition
 • Antithrombin and protease inhibitors
 • Avoidance strategies (antioxidants, normovolemia)
 • Supply of “prefabs” (e.g., heparinoids, Danaparoid)
 • Anesthetic regimens (e.g., sevoflurane)
  1. Adapted from Becker et al. [28]