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Table 4 Prognostic factors for patients with good and moderate outcome (GOS 4 + 5) after resuscitation in the ER using a cross-tabulation

From: Outcome and predictors for successful resuscitation in the emergency room of adult patients in traumatic cardiorespiratory arrest

  GOS 4 + 5 (good and moderate outcome) in % GOS 1–3 (severe disability, vegetative state, dead) in % Total n =  
ER resuscitation 90.2 52.2 1197 p< 0.001
Preclinical + ER resuscitation 9.8 47.8 911
Penetrating trauma 8.9 7.8 163 p = 0.53
Blunt trauma 91.1 92.2 1894
Female patients 27.2 30.1 628 p = 0.38
Male patients 72.8 69.9 1483
Type of injury
 Car 28.5 29.1 582 p = 0.26
 Motorcycle 14.6 13,6 275
 Bicycle 6.9 7.1 142
 Pedestrian 9.8 13.4 260
 Fall > 3 m 17.9 20.1 397
 Fall < 3 m 6.9 4.4 94
 Other 15.4 12.2 253
Severity of injury (AIS)
 AIS head <3 56.0 39.5 881 p< 0.001
 AIS head ≥ 3 44.0 60.5 1241
 AIS thorax <3 31.5 25.7 560 p= 0.05
 AIS thorax ≥ 3 68.5 74.3 1562
 AIS abdomen <3 69.6 68.1 1449 p = 0.67
 AIS abdomen ≥ 3 30.4 31.9 673
 AIS extremities <3 50.6 53.8 1134 p = 0.35
 AIS extremities ≥ 3 49.4 46.2 988
Preclinical RR >90 mmHG 73.3 34.9 664 p< 0.001
Preclinical RR ≤90 mmHG 26.7 65.1 991
ER RR >90 mmHG 69.2 31.4 647 p< 0.001
ER RR ≤90 mmHG 30.8 68.6 1130
No blood transfusion 52.5 33.9 700 p< 0.001
Blood transfusion 47.5 66.1 1222
≤10 blood transfusions 79.8 72.8 1418 p= 0.018
>10 blood transfusions 20.2 27.2 505
No coagulopathy 57.8 24.1 471 p< 0.001
Coagulopathy 42.2 75.9  
Preclinical GCS >8 70.2 23.8 593 p< 0.001
Preclinical GCS ≤8 29.8 76.2 1420
No acidosis 57.7 20.2 313 p< 0.001
Acidosis 42.3 79.8 925
Age in years 45 ± 20 50 ± 21 2122 p= 0.005
ISS 30 ± 12 45 ± 18 2122 p< 0.001
Preclinical volume in ml 1302 ± 974 1645 ± 1173 1886 p< 0.001
TASH score 9.6 ± 6.3 14.6 ± 5.6 1047 p< 0.001
Hemoglobin in the TR 11.2 ± 2.9 8.8 ± 3.5 1777 p< 0.001
Quick in the TR 72 ± 25 47 ± 51 1449 p< 0.001
INR in the TR 1.40 ± 0.70 2.51 ± 2.14 1482 p< 0.001
Base excess -6.2 ± 7.1 -13.2 ± 9.0 1238 p< 0.001
  1. GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale, ER emergency room, AIS Abbreviated Injury Severity Score, RR Riva Rocchi, GCS Glasgow Coma Score, ISS Injury Severity Score, TASH Trauma-Associated Severe Haemorrhage, TR trauma room, INR international normalised ratio, statistic significant results are bold (p≤0.005)