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Table 1 Patient characteristics in the overall population and in relation to adrenaline use

From: Current real-life use of vasopressors and inotropes in cardiogenic shock - adrenaline use is associated with excess organ injury and mortality

  All
(n = 216)
Patients treated with adrenaline
(n = 46)
Patients not treated with adrenaline
(n = 170)
P
Age, mean (SD) 66.6 (11.8) 67.7 (9.4) 66.3 (12.4) 0.4
Women, % 26 % 28 % 25 % 0.7
Medical history, %
 Coronary artery disease 35 % 44 % 32 % 0.16
  Previous MI 25 % 30 % 23 % 0.3
  Previous PCI 15 % 15 % 14 % 0.9
  Previous CABG 7 % 9 % 7 % 0.7
 Heart failure 17 % 15 % 17 % 0.8
 Hypertension 60 % 67 % 58 % 0.3
 Diabetes 28 % 35 % 26 % 0.2
 Renal insufficiency 12 % 20 % 9 % 0.051
 Atrial fibrillation/flutter 15 % 17 % 14 % 0.5
Clinical presentation
 ACS etiology 81 % 87 % 79 % 0.2
 Blood pressure, mmHg     
  Systolic 78 (14) 77 (15) 78 (14) 0.9
  Diastolic 47 (10) 44 (13) 47 (9) 0.1
  Mean arterial pressure 57 (11) 55 (12) 57 (10) 0.3
 Heart rate, beats/minute 90 (28) 96 (29) 89 (28) 0.15
 Sinus rhythm 77 % 72 % 79 % 0.3
Clinical findings
  Cold periphery 95 % 98 % 94 % 0.3
  Confusion 68 % 96 % 61 % <0.001
  Oliguria 57 % 82 % 49 % <0.001
  Lactate >2 mmol/l 72 % 93 % 66 % <0.001
 Resuscitation before enrolment 28 % 39 % 25 % 0.07
 LVEF, %, mean (SD) 33 (14) 31 (15) 34 (14) 0.3
Biochemistry
 Hemoglobin, g/l 128 (22) 130 (22) 128 (22) 0.7
 Creatinine, μmol/l 105 (80-139) 134 (91-171) 99 (80-135) 0.001
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2 60 (41–85) 45 (30–60) 64 (44–88) <0.001
  <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 50 % 76 % 43 % <0.001
 Lactate, mmol/l 2.9 (1.7–5.8) 5.6 (3.2–8.8) 2.5 (1.5–4.4) <0.001
 HsTnT, ng/l 2190 (393–5419) 2529 (463–4537) 2096 (357–6624) 0.8
 NT-proBNP, ng/l 2710 (599–9583) 2088 (580–15753) 2995 (592–9133) 0.8
  1. Results shown as % for categorical and mean (SD) or median (IQR) for continuous variables. MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft surgery, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation), hsTNT high sensitivity troponin T, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide
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