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Table 1 Causes of drug-induced hyperthermia

From: The pathophysiological basis and consequences of fever

Class Examples of causes
Antimicrobial agents β-lactam antibiotics (piperacillin, cefotaxime)
Sulphonamides
Malignant hyperthermia Suxamethonium
Volatile anaesthetic agents
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome Dopamine antagonists (chlorpromazine, haloperidol)
Atypical agents (serotonin and dopamine antagonists) (olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, aripiprazole, quetiapine)
Serotonin syndrome Antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, bupropion)
Opioids (tramadol, pethidine, fentanyl, pentazocine, buprenorphine oxycodone, hydrocodone)
Central nervous system stimulants (MDMA, amphetamines, sibutramine, methylphenidate, methamphetamine, cocaine)
Psychedelics (5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine, lysergide)
Herbs (St John’s Wort, Syrian rue, Panax ginseng, nutmeg, yohimbine)
Others (tryptophan, l-dopa, valproate, buspirone, lithium, linezolid, chlorpheniramine, risperidone, olanzapine, antiemetics (ondansetron, granisetron, metoclopramide), ritonavir, sumatriptan)
Propofol infusion syndrome Propofol
Anticholinergic agents Anticholinergics (atropine, glycopyrrolate),
Antihistamines (chlorpheniramine),
Antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine),
Antispasmodics (oxybutynin),
Cyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, doxepin)
Mydriatics (tropicamide)
Sympathimometic agents Prescription drugs (e.g. bronchodilators)
Non-prescription drugs (e.g. ephedrine in cold remedies)
Illegal street drugs (e.g. cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine (‘ecstasy’), mephedrone)
Dietary supplements (e.g. ephedra alkaloids)
Piperazine compounds Anti-emetic (cyclizine)
Anti-helminths
Legal ‘club drugs’ (‘Legal X’, ‘Legal E’, ‘Frenzy’)
Synthetic cathinones Street drugs (mephedrone, ‘meow-meow’)
Bupropion (anti-depressant and anti-smoking agent)
  1. Taken from [23] with permission