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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Urine sodium concentration to predict fluid responsiveness in oliguric ICU patients: a prospective multicenter observational study

Characteristic All patients (n = 54) Cardiac responders (n = 15) Cardiac nonresponders (n = 39) p Value
Age, years 64 (55–73) 66 (54– 78) 63 (54–72) 0.93
Male sex, n (%) 32 (59) 8 (53) 23 (59) 0.73
Comorbidities, n (%)     
 COPD 8 (15) 3 (20) 5 (13) 0.67
 Diabetes mellitus 8 (15) 2 (13) 6 (15) 1.0
 Hypertension 23 (42) 7 (47) 16 (41) 0.76
 Heart failure 8 (15) 5 (33) 3 (8) 0.03
 Cancer 11 (20) 4 (27) 7 (18) 0.47
Nephrotoxic agents     
 NSAIDs 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (3) 1.0
 ACE inhibitors 2 (4) 0 (0) 2 (5) 1.0
 Aminoglycosides 9 (17) 2 (13) 7 (18) 1.0
 Contrast media 12 (22) 16 (23) 9 (23) 1.0
Organ failure     
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 33 (42) 10 (67) 23 (59) 0.77
 SAPS II score 39 (30–48) 38 (25–51) 39 (30–48) 0.92
 Norepinephrine, n (%) 17 (31) 6 (40) 11 (28) 0.52
 Lactate, mmol/L 1.8 (1.3–2.3) 1.9 (0.9–2.8) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.39
 Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 12 (8–17) 11 (7–15) 13 (8–18) 0.93
 Serum creatinine, μmol/L 90 (56–124) 117 (81–153) 74 (49–99) 0.22
 Bilirubin, mg/L 7 (1–14) 9 (5–13) 7 (1–13) 1.00
 Bicarbonate, mmol/L 25 (22–28) 21 (17–25) 26 (23–29) 0.06
 Platelet count, 103/L 346 (201–491) 207 (95–319) 358 (215–501) 1.00
 Hemoglobin, g/dl 9.4 (8.1–10.7) 10.4 (8.4–12.4) 9.1 (8.1–10.1) 0.54
 Glucose, mmol/L 7.9 (7.0–8.8) 7.9 (7.1–8.6) 8.0 (6.9–9.1) 0.73
Reason for ICU admission     
 Sepsis 14 (26) 2 (13) 12 (31) 0.3
 Neuro-ICU 5 (9) 2 (13) 3 (8) 0.61
 Respiratory failure 13 (24) 1 (7) 12 (31) 0.08
 Trauma/hemorrhage 7 (13) 2 (13) 5 (13) 1.0
 Cardiogenic shock 1 (2) 0 (0) 1 (3) 1.0
 Post-cardiac arrest 4 (7) 2 (13) 2 (5) 0.3
Hemodynamic status     
 SAP, mmHg 134 (118–150) 112 (104–120) 138 (126–150) 0.92
 MAP, mmHg 81 (71–91) 74 (67–81) 87 (79–95) 0.07
 HR, beats/minute 98 (85–111) 98 (82–114) 96 (81–111) 0.14
 CO, L/minute 5.3 (2.8–7.8) 4.9 (1.7–8.1) 5.6 (3.3–7.9) 0.07
 ScvO2, % 75 (62–88) 66 (54–78) 85 (75–95) 0.01
 CVP, mmHg 8 (6–10) 8 (7–9) 7 (4–10) 0.58
  1. Abbreviations: ICU intensive care unit, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD coronary artery disease, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, SAP systolic arterial pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, HR heart rate, CO cardiac output, CVP central venous pressure, ScvO 2 central venous oxygen saturation
  2. Data are expressed as absolute number (percentage) or median (interquartile range)