Skip to main content

Table 3 Risk factors, Candida colonization (low and high grade) and infection, and antifungal therapy characteristics of patients

From: Contribution of Candida biomarkers and DNA detection for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in ICU patients with severe abdominal conditions

Included patients n = 185*
Risk factors, no. (%)  
 Broad-spectrum antibiotics 184 (99.5)
 Urinary catheter 183 (98.9)
 Central venous catheter 183 (98.9)
 Arterial catheter 165 (89.2)
 Mechanical ventilation 156 (84.3)
 Parenteral nutrition 155 (83.8)
 Corticosteroids 73 (39.5)
 Renal replacement therapy 54 (29.2)
Candida colonization (n = 154)  
 Low-grade Candida spp. colonization, no. (%) 130 (84.4)
 High-grade Candida spp. colonization, no. (%) 24 (15.6)
Candida score ≥ 3; first week/during study 96/142 (51.9)
Candida infection (n = 31)  
Severity of Candida infection at diagnosis  
 No sepsis/sepsis 3/5
 Severe sepsis/septic shock 9/14
Causative Candida spp  
C. albicans 16 (51.6)
C. glabrata 7 (22.6)
C. parapsilosis 3 (9.7)
C. tropicalis 1 3.2)
C. krusei 1 (3.2)
C. dubliniensis 1 (3.2)
C. famata 1 (3.2)
C. albicans + C. glabrata 1 (3.2)
Time between hospital admission to infection, daysa 16 (6.5–19.5)
Time between ICU admission to infection, daysa 7 (2–13)
Hospital/ICU mortality, no. (%) 9 (29.0/5 (16.1)
Systemic antifungal therapy (SAT) (n = 119)**  
Empirical therapy for suspected IC (n = 90)***
 Multifocal colonization, no. (%) 50 (55.6)
 Clinical situation, no. (%)  
 No sepsis/sepsis 8 (8.9)/17 (18.9)
 Severe sepsis/septic shock 29 (32.2)/36 (40.0)
 APACHE II 17.8 ± 6.2
 SOFAa 6 (5–9)
 Candida score 4 (3–4)
Time between of hospital/and beginning of SAT, daysa 11 (7–19)
Time between ICU admission and beginning of SAT, daysa 7 (1–11)
Hospital/ICU mortality, no. (%) 29 (32.2)/23 (25.6)
Therapy for documented infection (n = 29)***  
 Clinical situation  
 No sepsis/sepsis 3 (10.3)/4 (13.8)
 Severe sepsis/septic shock 8 (27.6)/14 (48.3)
 APACHE II 18.8 ± 6.8
 SOFAa 6.5 (4–10)
 Candida score 4 (3–5)
Time between of hospital/ICU admission and beginning of SAT, daysa  
 Candidemia (11) 15 (4.5 ; 22)/6.5 (1 ; 16)
 Intra-abdominal candidiasis (18) 12.5 (8 ; 17)/7 (3 ; 12)
Antifungal agents (>1 agent/patient)  
 Days of therapy (first SAT)a 15 (8–21)
  1. Values are expressed as frequencies and percentages; mean ± standard deviation (SD); amedian (interquartile range, 25th–75th percentile)
  2. ICU intensive care unit, SAT systemic antifungal therapy, IC invasive candidiasis, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  3. *Patients with Candida colonization (low and high grade) (n = 154) plus invasive candidiasis (n = 31), **patients with Candida colonization (n = 90) and IC (n = 29); ***starting antifungal therapy