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Table 3 Clinical characteristics upon emergency room admission of trauma patients (2012–2014) with and without tranexamic acid administered during the prehospital phase

From: Prehospital administration of tranexamic acid in trauma patients

  Tranexamic acid (TXA) group Control group p Value
SBP at ER ≤90 mmHg, n (%) 51/236 (21.6) 50/247 (20.2) 0.74
SBP at ER, mmHg, mean ± SD (n) 114 ± 27 (236) 117 ± 32 (247) 0.19
Haemoglobin,a g/dl, mean ± SD (n) 11.7 ± 2.8 (239) 11.4 ± 2.8 (227) 0.33
Base excess,a mmol/L, mean ± SD (n) −3.1 ± 4.7 (221) −3.5 ± 5.1 (219) 0.38
INR,a mean ± SD (n) 1.3 ± 0.7 (230) 1.3 ± 0.5 (216) 0.53
PTI,a Quick’s test points, mean ± SD (n) 76 ± 22 (230) 75 ± 23 (216) 0.57
i.v. Fluids,b ml, mean ± SD (n) 1945 ± 2889 (182) 1867 ± 2005 (146) 0.46
 Crystalloids,b ml, mean ± SD (n) 1668 ± 2421 (182) 1523 ± 1817 (146) 0.92
 Colloids,b ml, mean ± SD (n) 249 ± 591 (182) 317 ± 556 (146) 0.18
pRBC transfusion,b n (%) 64/258 (24.8) 65/258 (25.2) 1.00
pRBC units,b mean ± SD (n) 1.6 ± 4.3 (258) 2.0 ± 5.8 (258) 0.81
 Number of units if given, mean ± SD/median 6.6 ± 6.5/4 7.8 ± 9.4/4 0.81
FFP transfusion,b n (%) 40/258 (15.5) 43/258 (16.7) 0.81
FFP units,b mean ± SD (n) 1.2 ± 3.8 (258) 1.4 ± 4.6 (258) 0.68
 Number of units if given, mean ± SD/median 7.7 ± 6.7/6 8.4 ± 8.1/5 0.68
Platelet transfusion,b n (%) 8/258 (3.1) 12/256(4.7) 0.37
Platelet units,b mean ± SD (n) 0.1 ± 0.7 (258) 0.1 ± 0.9 (256) 0.37
 Number of units if given, mean ± SD/median 3.8 ± 2.1/3.5 2.9 ± 3.0/2 0.37
Massive transfusion,b ≥10 pRBC, n (%) 13/258 (5.0) 15/258 (5.8) 0.85
Haemostatic drugs,b n (%) 36/205 (17.6) 35/149 (23.5) 0.18
 Fibrinogen concentrate,b n (%) 26/205 (12.7) 24/149 (16.1) 0.44
Level 1 trauma centre, n (%) 182/258 (70.5) 200/258 (77.5) 0.09
  1. ER emergency room, FFP fresh frozen plasma, i.v. intravenous, INR international normalized ratio, pRBC packed red blood cells, SD standard deviation
  2. As some values were missing, the respective population is presented in the denominator for continuous variables and in brackets for categorical variables
  3. aLaboratory values measured upon emergency room arrival
  4. bpRBC, FFP, intravenous fluids and haemostatic drugs administered between emergency room arrival and intensive care unit admission