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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients

From: Monocyte programmed death ligand-1 expression after 3–4 days of sepsis is associated with risk stratification and mortality in septic patients: a prospective cohort study

Parameters Control Sepsis Septic shock P value
Number 29 59 76
Age (years) 68 (66–75) 71 (66–78) 71 (61–78) 0.497
Male, n (%) 18 (62.1 %) 32 (54.2 %) 37 (48.7 %) 0.458
WBC (×109/L) 6.9 (5.6–7.9) 13.3 (10.9–17.8) 14.9 (11.8–17.2) <0.001
Lymphocyte (×109/L) 2.8 (2.4–3.1) 1.06 (0.73–1.63) 0.76 (0.54–1.07) <0.001
SOFA score 0 5 (3–7) 11 (9–14) <0.001
SAPS II 12 (12–15) 26 (24–32) 53 (46–60) <0.001
Percentage of PD-1+/CD4+ T cells (%) 26.2 (23.2–29.9) 34.1 (28.4–44.4) 38.2 (29.2–47.7) <0.001
MFI of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells 6.3 (5.8–6.8) 7.1 (5.2–9.2) 7.5 (6.0–9.4) 0.008
Percentage of PD-1+/CD8+ T cells (%) 22.6 (18.7–28.2) 31.6 (23.9–46.6) 36.5 (27.3–51.3) <0.001
MFI of PD-1 on CD8+ T cells 5.9 (4.8–6.6) 6.4 (4.2–7.5) 6.6 (4.9–8.4) 0.181
Percentage of PD-L1+/CD4+ T cells (%) 18.2 (12.3–22.6) 21.5 (16.5–30.5) 21.0 (9.3–30.6) 0.021
MFI of PD-L1 on CD4+ T cells 1.8 (1.6–2.2) 1.8 (1.6–2.6) 1.8 (1.5–2.0) 0.230
Percentage of PD-L1+/CD8+ T cells (%) 22.6 (17.1–26.2) 18.8 (14.9–37.6) 19.5 (10.3–37.4) 0.645
MFI of PD-L1 on CD8+ T cells 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 1.6 (1.2–2.1) 1.5 (1.4–1.8) 0.596
Percentage of monocytes expressing PD-L1 (%) 12.9 (10.4–15.3) 29.2 (12.1–43.9) 35.9 (20.4–54.7) <0.001
MFI of PD-L1 on monocytes 3.4 (3.0–3.9) 4.5 (2.2–7.5) 8.3 (7.7–9.7) <0.001
Type of infection, n (%)    
Pneumonia 0 30 (50.8 %) 41 (53.9 %) 0.731
IAI 0 7 (11.8 %) 11 (14.5 %) 0.658
CNSI 0 5 (8.5 %) 6 (7.9 %) 0.903
USI 0 17 (28.8 %) 18 (23.7 %) 0.500
Number of comorbidities    
≥1, n (%) 0 11 (18.6 %) 39 (51.3 %) <0.001
28-day mortality, n (%) 0 10 (16.9 %) 27 (35.5 %) 0.016
  1. Data are shown as median and interquartile range unless otherwise indicated. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance was performed for multi-group comparisons
  2. CNSI central nervous system infection, IAI intra-abdominal infection, MFI mean of fluorescence intensities, PD-1 Programmed cell death receptor-1, PD-L1 programmed cell death receptor ligand-1, SAPS II simplified acute physiology score II, SOFA sepsis-related organ failure assessment, USI urinary system infection, WBC white blood cells