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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies with physicians and non-physicians (paramedics) in out-of-hospital CPR

From: Influence of EMS-physician presence on survival after out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Design Details Patients treated by ROSC Survival to hospital admission Survival to hospital discharge 30-day survival
    Physician (n) Paramedic (n) Physician (n/total, %) Paramedic (n/total, %) Physician (n/total, %) Paramedic (n/total, %) Physician (n/total, %) Paramedic (n/total, %) Physician (n/total, %) Paramedic (n/total, %)
Olasveengen et al., 2009 [11] Retrospective analysis of registry data 2003–2008, contemporaneous, urban, same city, same dispatch criteria 232 741 79/232, 34.0 % 242/741, 32.7 % With ROSC 66/232, 28.4 %; with ongoing CPR 22/232, 9.5 %; all hospital 88/232, 37.9 % With ROSC 195/741, 26.3 %; with ongoing CPR 98/741, 13.2 %; all hospital 293/741, 39.5 % 31/232; 13.4 % 78/741, 10.5 % Not reported Not reported
Yen et al., 2006 [14] Prospective, observational multicenter study 1999–2000, contemporaneous, urban, same city, same dispatch criteria 115 43 Not reported Not reported 17/115, 14.8 % 16/43, 37.2 % 3/115, 2.6 % 4/43, 9.3 % Not reported Not reported
Oshige et al., 2005 [15] Prospective, observational study 2003, contemporaneous, different urban and rural areas: four areas with physician-manned ambulances compared with four areas with paramedic-staffed ambulances, same dispatch criteria 120 222 Not reported Not reported 49/120, 40.8 % 52/222, 23.4 % Not reported Not reported 13/120; 10.8 % 10/222; 4.5 %
Fischer et al., 2003 [4] Prospective, observational study 1997, contemporaneous, two different cities (city of Bonn, Germany: physician-manned ambulance vs. city of Birmingham, UK: paramedic-staffed ambulances) 918 3380 415/918, 45.2 % 554/3380, 16.4 % 371/918, 40.4 % 362/3380, 10.7 % 135/918, 14.7 % 135/3380, 4.0 % Not reported Not reported
Soo et al., 1999 [16] Retrospective observational study 1991–1994, contemporaneous, same area 70 551 Not reported Not reported 17/70, 24.3 % 86/551, 15.6 % 11/70, 15.7 % 32/551, 5.8 % Not reported Not reported
Kojima et al., 2010 [7] Prospective, observational study 2005–2008, contemporaneous, propensity score-matched analysis 2072 2072 555/2072, 26.8 % 249/2072, 12.0 % Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported 336/2072, 16.2 % 227/2072, 11.0 %
Eisenburger et al., 2001 [12] Descriptive observational study with prospective data collection 1991–1998, contemporaneous, same rural area 105 13 47/105, 44.8 % 7/13, 53.8 % Not reported Not reported 23/105, 21.9 % 3/13, 23.1 % 1-year survival: 20/105, 19.0 % 1-year survival: 1/13, 7.7 %
Dickenson et al., 1997 [13] Retrospective case review 1994, contemporaneous, same suburban area 9 40 6/9, 66.7 % 12/40, 30.0 % Not reported Not reported 4/9, 44.4 % 2/40, 5.0 % Not reported Not reported
Hagihara et al., 2014 [10] Prospective, registry study 2005–2010, contemporaneous, nationwide in Japan, physician not dispatched to the scene but happened to be present during rescue mission for training of the ambulance crew or occasionally when the patient collapsed 9231 9231 2774/9231, 30.1 % 1661/9231, 18.0 % Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported 1441/9231, 15.6 % 1169/9231, 12.7 %
Yasunaga et al., 2010 [17] Prospective, registry study 2005-2007, contemporaneous, nationwide in Japan, in several regions a physician-staffed ambulance is available without BCPR 1597; with BCPR 1916 without BCPR 53,482; with BCPR 38,077 Not reported not reported Not reported not reported Not reported not reported Not reported not reported Not reported not reported Not reported not reported Without BCPR 185/1597, 11.6 %; with BCPR 287/1916, 15.0 %; all patients: 472/3513, 13.4 % Without BCPR 3608/53,482, 6.7 %; with BCPR 3642/38,077, 9.6 %; all patients: 7250/91559, 7.9 %
Hampton et al., 1977 [18] Prospective, interventional study probably 1975–1976, contemporaneous, same urban area 19 46 Not reported Not reported 9/19, 47.4 % 8/46, 17.4 % 3/19, 15.8 % 2/46, 4.3 % Not reported Not reported
Mitchell et al., 1997 [19] Prospective, observational study one calendar year in the middle of the nineties, contemporaneous, 2 different urban areas (Edinburgh, UK: physician-based vs. Milwaukee, USA: paramedic-based) 306 732 116/306, 37.7 % 225/732, 31.1 % 78/306, 25.5 % 159/732, 21.7 % 38/306, 12.4 % 52/732, 7.2 % Not reported Not reported
Frandsen et al., 1991 [20] Prospective, interventional study paramedic: 1986–1989, physician: 1988, partly contemporaneous, same urban and rural area 85 308 Not reported Not reported 14/85, 16.5 % 31/308, 10.1 % 11/85, 12.9 % 10/308, 3.2 % Not reported Not reported
Fischer et al., 2011 [5] Prospective, observational study 2001-2004, physician-staffed: urban (Bonn, Germany) and rural (Cantabria, Spain), paramedic-based: urban (Coventry, UK and Richmond, USA) 263 833 89/263, 33.8 % 214/833, 25.7 % 84/263, 31.9 % 110/833, 13.2 % Not reported Not reported Not reported Not reported
  1. CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation, BCPR bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation