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Table 1 Patient characteristics according to putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis diagnosis

From: Putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in critically ill patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a matched cohort study

  All patients (n = 150) PIPA (n = 50) No PIPA (n = 100) p Valuea
  Number (%) NA (n) Number (%) NA (n) Number (%) NA (n)
Demographics
 Male sex, n (%) 111 (74)   38 (76)   73 (73)   0.52
 Age, yr (IQR) 66 (60–73)   67 (60–74)   66 (70–73)   0.69
 Weight, kg (IQR) 77 (65–94) 19 72 (62–87) 7 78 (67–100) 12 0.098
Underlying conditions, n (%)
 Diabetes mellitus 34 (22.7)   8 (16)   26 (26)   0.21
 Chronic heart failure 25 (16.7)   11 (22)   14 (14)   0.61
 Chronic renal failure 6 (4)   2 (4)   4 (4)   1
 Chronic liver failure 8 (5.3)   4 (8)   4 (4)   0.31
 Solid tumor (CR) 35 (23.3)   11 (22)   24 (24)   0.74
 Hematological malignancy (CR) 5 (3.3)   4 (8)   1 (1)   0.57
 Autoimmune disease 6 (4)   3 (6)   3 (3)   0.39
 Alcohol abuse 42 (28)   14 (28)   28 (28)   1
COPD characteristics
 GOLD grade ≥3, n (% 78 (62.9) 26 31 (68.9) 5 47 (59.5) 21 0.30
 FEV1 % (IQR) 41 (29–59) 30 37 (27–57) 8 43 (30–60) 22 0.47
Smoking history, n (%) 135 (93.7) 6 43 (93.5) 4 92 (93.9) 2 0.92
 Pack-years (IQR) 40 (30–60) 61 40 (30–58) 19 45 (30–60) 42 0.66
 Acute exacerbations,b n (%) 28 (21.7) 21 8 (17.8) 5 20 (23.8) 16 0.54
Corticosteroid use, n (%)        
 Chronic use >3 mo 22 (14.7)   13 (26)   9 (9)   0.004
 Daily dose >20 mg 77 (52.7)   36 (73.5)   41 (42.3)   <0.001
 Chronic inhalational corticosteroid use 75 (51) 3 28 (56)   47 (48.4) 3 0.52
ICU admission
 Antibiotics (prior 3 months) 82 (55.4) 2 40 (83.3) 2 42 (42)   <0.001
 SAPS II, mean (SD) 46.9 (13.9)   46.9 (13.9)   47 (13.9)   0.99
 LODS score (IQR) 6 (4–8)   6 (3–7)   6 (4–8)   0.26
Supportive therapy in ICU
 MV duration 14 (5–27)   18 (8–26)   12 (5–26)   0.60
 Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 25 (17)   7 (14)   18 (18)   0.57
 Vasopressive or inotropic agents, n (%) 95 (63)   32 (64)   63 (63)   0.69
Symptoms, n (%)
 Refractory fever 17 (11.3)   6 (12)   11 (11)   0.85
 Recrudescence of fever 19 (12.7)   11 (22)   8 (8)   0.02
 Pleural effusion 17 (11.3)   6 (12)   11 (11)   0.85
 Dyspnea 136 (90.7)   49 (98)   87 (87)   0.07
 Hemoptysis 8 (5.3)   5 (10)   3 (3)   0.187
 Worsening of respiratory insufficiency 50 (33.3)   30 (60)   20 (20)   <0.001
  1. PIPA putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, NA not available, IQR interquartile range, CR complete remission, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GOLD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second, MV mechanical ventilation, ICU intensive care unit, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score, LODS Logistic Organ Dysfunction System, SD standard deviation
  2. ap < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  3. bAt least three acute exacerbations or a single one requiring ICU hospitalization over the past year