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Table 3 Prediction of adverse outcome of clinical models, biomarkers and combinations

From: Biomarkers from distinct biological pathways improve early risk stratification in medical emergency patients: the multinational, prospective, observational TRIAGE study

  Mortality ICU admission High treatment priority
  AUC (95 % CI) p value AUC (95 % CI) p value AUC (95 % CI) p value
Models including clinical information readily available at ED admission
 Initial clinical model 0.79 (0.77, 0.81) - 0.70 (0.67, 0.72) - 0.71 (0.70, 0.72) -
 Initial clinical model plus ProADM 0.84 (0.83, 0.86) <0.001 0.73 (0.70, 0.75) <0.001 0.74 (0.73, 0.76) <0.001
 Initial clinical model plus multimarker 0.85 (0.83, 0.87) <0.001 0.75 (0.73, 0.77) <0.001 0.75 (0.74, 0.76) <0.001
Models including full clinical information available at ED discharge
 Full clinical model 0.85 (0.83, 0.87) - 0.75 (0.72, 0.77) - 0.73 (0.72, 0.74) -
 Full clinical model plus ProADM 0.88 (0.87, 0.90) <0.001 0.77 (0.75, 0.79) <0.001 0.76 (0.75, 0.77) <0.001
 Full clinical model plus multimarker 0.89 (0.88, 0.91) <0.001 0.79 (0.77, 0.81) <0.001 0.77 (0.75, 0.78) <0.001
Models including information from initial triage scores
 Triage model 0.67 (0.64, 0.70) - 0.73 (0.72, 0.74) - 0.79 (0.77, 0.81) -
 Triage model plus ProADM 0.83 (0.81, 0.85) <0.001 0.76 (0.75, 0.77) <0.001 0.84 (0.83, 0.86) <0.001
 Triage model plus multimarker 0.84 (0.82, 0.86) <0.001 0.77 (0.75, 0.78) <0.001 0.85 (0.83, 0.87) <0.001
  1. Initial clinical model includes age, gender, main presenting symptom and vital signs (i.e., heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, consciousness); full clinical model includes age, gender, comorbidities, main presenting symptom, main diagnosis and vital signs; multimarker model includes ProADM, procalcitonin, copeptin; p value refers to comparison of combined model with the clinical model
  2. ICU intensive care unit, AUC area under the curve, CI confidence interval, ED emergency department, ProADM pro-adrenomedullin