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Table 4 Summary of logistic regression models based on plasma acid concentrations (N=138) or urine acid concentrations (N=112) for probability of fatal outcome in participants with severe malaria

From: The role of previously unmeasured organic acids in the pathogenesis of severe malaria

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  β (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) P β (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) P
Regression of plasma acid concentrations
 LA 1.74 (1.00–2.47) 5.67 (2.72–11.86) <0.001 1.24 (0.43–2.05) 3.45 (1.54–7.76) 0.003
 HPLA 1.76 (1.02–2.51) 5.82 (2.76–12.26) <0.001 1.25 (0.48–2.02) 3.48 (1.61–7.52) 0.001
 α-HBA 1.22 (0.53–1.91) 3.40 (1.71–6.78) 0.001    
 β-HBA 1.09 (0.45–1.73) 2.98 (1.57–5.64) 0.001    
Regression of urine acid concentrations
 LA 0.54 (0.25–0.84) 1.723 (1.28–2.31) <0.001 0.54 (0.25– 0.84) 1.72 (1.28–2.31) <0.001
 HPLA 0.58 (0.21–0.96) 1.791 (1.23–2.61) 0.002    
 α-HBA 0.23 (−0.06 to +0.52) 1.259 (0.94–1.68) 0.118    
 β-HBA 0.38 (0.02–0.74) 1.459 (1.02–2.09) 0.039    
 MMA −0.03 (−0.36 to +0.29) 0.966 (0.70– 1.34) 0.836    
 EMA 0.12 (−0.22 to +0.46) 1.126 (0.80–1.58) 0.489    
 α-KGA −0.13 (−0.43 to +0.16) 0.877 (0.65–1.18) 0.382    
  1. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, LA lactic acid, HPLA hydroxyphenyllactic acid, α-HBA α-hydroxybutyric acid, β-HBA β-hydroxybutyric acid, EMA ethylmalonic acid, MMA methylmalonic acid, α-KGA α-ketoglutaric acid, AUROCC area under the receiver operating characteristic curve
  2. Goodness of fit of the plasma acid model: AUROCC=0.81; Hosmer-Lemeshow=0.94; P=0.612, N=138. Goodness of fit of the urine acid model: AUROCC=0.72; Hosmer-Lemeshow=0.72; P=0.459, N=112. Concentrations were log-transformed to normality before analysis. All variables in univariate analysis were initially included in the model, then backward stepwise selection was performed, removing variables on the basis of P≥0.05