Skip to main content

Table 2 Biochemical characteristics pertaining to acidosis and calculation of strong ion gap using admission venous blood specimens

From: The role of previously unmeasured organic acids in the pathogenesis of severe malaria

Characteristics Uncomplicated malaria N=102 Severe malaria N=138 Sepsis N=32 Encephalopathy N=35 P value*
Na+ (mmol/L) 134 (4.73, 109–143) 136 (6.90, 108–160) 136 (11.23, 107–172) 136 (9.18, 113–157) 0.163
K+ (mmol/L) 3.6 (0.44, 2.4–5.4) 3.9 (0.81, 2.1–7.1) 4.0 (1.24, 2.0–6.9) 3.7 (0.74, 2.0–5.5) 0.003
Mg2+ (mmol/L) 0.7 (0.22, 0.1–1.1) 0.9 (0.21, 0.5–1.8) 0.8 (0.22, 0.3–1.3) 0.8 (0.13, 0.4–1.1) <0.001
Ca2+ (mmol/L) 1.9 (0.21, 1.4–2.6) 2.0 (0.21, 1.4–2.5) 1.9 (0.38, 1.1–2.6) 2.1 (0.27, 1.3–2.5) <0.001
Cl (mmol/L) 102 (5.16, 87–113) 105 (7.87, 72–139) 106 (11.50, 78–138) 100 (9.73, 75–125) <0.001
l-Lactate (enzymatic assay) (mmol/L), geo mean (95 % CI, range) 1.7 (1.6–1.9, 0.8–4.6) 3.7 (3.3–4.1, 0.8–14.4) 2.9 (2.2–3.8, 0.7–15.8) 1.9 (1.4–2.5, 0.3–11.5) <0.001
Albumin (g/L) 30 (6.3, 16–46) 28 (5.8, 14–49) 28 (6.3, 18–41) 35 (6.2, 17–47) <0.001
PO43- (mg/dl), geo mean (95 % CI, range) 0.7 (0.6–0.8, 0.1–3.0) 2.1 (1.8–2.3, 0.5–11.6) 3.5 (2.7–4.6, 1.0–12.9) 2.9 (2.5–3.3, 1.1–11.7) <0.001
HCO3 (mmol/L) 23.6 (3.4, 15.4–38.9) 19.0 (5.4, 3.5–35.8) 17.0 (6.1, 4.5–30.8) 24.2 (6.5, 3.9–41.3) <0.001
pH 7.437 (0.053, 7.308–7.566) 7.398 (0.101, 6.931–7.615) 7.312 (0.182, 6.623–7.536) 7.442 (0.097, 7.054–7.549) <0.001
pCO2 (kPa) 4.8 (0.92, 3.1–8.5) 4.2 (1.04, 2.2–8.1) 4.6 (2.10, 1.8–11.1) 4.8 (1.14, 1.9–7.2) <0.001
SBD (mEq/L) +1 (+3.6, −15 to +9) +6 (+6.6, −11 to +29) +9 (+7.6, +3 to +30) 0 (+7.6, −19 to +27) <0.001
SIDeff (mEq/L) 33.5 (4.3, 22.9–50.8) 28.1 (6.1, 10.5–44.4) 26.8 (7.5, 11.4–44.2) 36.4 (6.9, 18.1–53.8) <0.001
SIDapp (mEq/L) 39.5 (4.4, 29.0–52.7) 36.3 (6.2, 13.8–52.4) 35.7 (7.2, 18.2–49.4) 43.0 (4.5, 32.1–53.3) <0.001
SIG (mEq/L) 6.0 (3.7, −5.5 to 15.1) 8.2 (4.5, −2.4 to 23.4) 8.6 (7.7, −4.9 to 30.2) 6.6 (5.1, −2.4 to 24.1) 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, geo mean geometric mean, HCO3 bicarbonate, pCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide, PO43- phosphate, SBD standard base deficit; SIDapp apparent strong ion difference, SIDeff effective strong ion difference, SIG strong ion gap
  2. For all values, means (SD, range) are reported unless stated otherwise; geometric mean, 95 % CI and range are reported for non-normally distributed variables
  3. *P values were determined by analysis of variance between the four participant groups. Variables with a normal or near-normal distribution were analysed directly; others were log-transformed toward normality, then analysed