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Table 2 Risk factors for complications following extubation

From: Postextubation laryngeal edema and stridor resulting in respiratory failure in critically ill adult patients: updated review

Outcome measure Study Year Risk factors
Laryngeal injury Colice et al. [1] 1989 Persistent laryngeal neuromotor activity, tracheostomy
  Kastanos et al. [7] 1983 Severe respiratory failure, high cuff pressure, duration of endotracheal intubation, secretion infection
  Esteller-Moré et al. [31] 2005 Longer duration of intubation, tracheostomy, number of days in the intensive care unit
Laryngeal edema Darmon et al. [12] 1992 Duration of intubation (>36 hours, female gender)
  François et al. [11] 2007 Trauma at admission, gender (female), short duration of intubation (<7 days), smaller height-to-tube diameter ratio, absence of methylprednisolone pretreatment
Postextubation stridor Cheng et al. [16] 2006 Gender (female), lower Glasgow Coma Scale score, non-sedation treatment
  Sandhu et al. [21] 2000 Duration of intubation (>3 days)
  Daley et al. [32] 1996 Tracheostomy, time to reintubation
  Ho et al. [17] 1996 Gender (female)
  Jaber et al. [25] 2003 High SAPS II, medical patients, difficult intubation, history of self-extubation, prolonged intubation, high cuff pressure
  Kriner et al. [18] 2005 Gender (female), duration on intubation (>6 days), ration tube size to laryngeal size >45 %
  Wang et al. [19] 2007 Gender (female)
  Maury et al. [20] 2004 Gender (female)
  Erginel et al. [33] 2005 Duration of ventilation (>5 days), body mass index (>26.5)
Reintubation Daley et al. [32] 1996 Tracheostomy, postextubation stidor
  Jaber et al. [25] 2003 Postextubation stridor
  Epstein and Ciubotaru [3] 1998 APACHE II score, age, cardiopulmonary cause for reintubation
  Sandhu et al. [21] 2000 Duration of previous intubation (>3 days)
  1. Adapted from Wittekamp et al. [4]
  2. SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II