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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort, stratified by hydration level according to bioelectrical impedance vector analysis measurement upon admission

From: Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis in critically ill patients: a prospective, clinician-blinded investigation

  All Dehydration Normal Overhydration P valuea
(n =61) (n =14) (n =22) (n =25)
Age, yr 63 (48–72) 66 (56–76) 61 (43–68) 65 (52–75) 0.43
Female sex, n (%) 23 (38 %) 5 (38 %) 11 (50 %) 7 (28 %) 0.30
Height, cm 168 (158–175) 168 (160–170) 169 (158–175) 173 (159–178) 0.77
Weight, kg 76 (67–96) 75 (64–85) 74 (67–88) 90 (72–109) 0.16
Body mass index, kg/m2 28 (24–33) 26 (24–29) 27 (23–30) 29 (25–36) 0.22
APACHE III score 62 (47–82) 75 (49–82) 53 (45–67) 72 (48–92) 0.21
Time from ICU admission until enrolled, h 14 (7–19) 11 (5–19) 11 (4–19) 15 (12–19) 0.23
Comorbidity      
 Cardiovascular, n (%) 26 (43 %) 4 (29 %) 11 (50 %) 11 (44 %) 0.51
 COPD/asthma, n (%) 8 (13 %) 5 (38 %) 0 (0) 3 (12 %) 0.007
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 16 (26 %) 1 (7 %) 5 (23 %) 10 (40 %) 0.08
 Chronic liver disease, n (%) 8 (13 %) 1 (7 %) 0 (0) 7 (28 %) 0.009
 Neurological, n (%) 3 (5 %) 1 (7 %) 1 (5 %) 1 (4 %) 1.0
 Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 4 (7 %) 1 (7 %) 0 (0) 3 (12 %) 0.27
 Malignancy, n (%) 9 (15 %) 3 (21 %) 3 (14 %) 3 (12 %) 0.74
Non-operative admission diagnosis      
 Sepsis, n (%) 10 (16 %) 4 (29 %) 4 (18 %) 2 (8 %) 0.24
 Cardiac, n (%) 8 (13 %) 4 (29 %) 2 (9 %) 2 (8 %) 0.21
 Neurological, n (%) 9 (15 %) 1 (7 %) 5 (23 %) 3 (12 %) 0.47
 Respiratory, n (%) 9 (15 %) 3 (21 %) 6 (27 %) 0 (0) 0.01
 Intoxication, n (%) 2 (3 %) 0 (0) 1 (5 %) 1 (4 %) 1.0
 Liver, n (%) 2 (3 %) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (8 %) 0.34
 Gastrointestinal, n (%) 5 (8 %) 0 (0) 0 (0) 5 (20 %) 0.02
Operative admission diagnosis      
 Neurological, n (%) 3 (5 %) 1 (7 %) 0 (0) 2 (8 %) 0.44
 Vascular, n (%) 2 (3 %) 0 (0) 1 (5 %) 1 (4 %) 1.0
 Gastrointestinal, n (%) 11 (18 %) 1 (7 %) 3 (14 %) 7 (28 %) 0.27
  1. APACHE III Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III, BIVA bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. Continuous variables are presented as median (interquartile range)
  3. aStatistical comparisons of the data were performed using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables