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Table 4 Factors associated with selected adverse events in univariate analyses

From: Adverse events associated with poor neurological outcome during targeted temperature management and advanced critical care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Adverse event Factors OR (95 % CI) p
Bleeding Intra-aortic balloon pump 5.40 (1.47–19.83) 0.011
  Continuous renal replacement therapy 3.13 (1.13–8.65) 0.028
  Cardiogenic shocka 2.39 (1.09–5.26) 0.031
Pneumoniab Ice bag only 3.00 (1.79–5.02) <.001
  Malignancy 2.68 (1.04–6.90) 0.041
  Neurological disease 2.36 (1.25–4.46) 0.008
  Non-shockable initial rhythm 1.58 (1.14–2.20) 0.006
  No bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation 1.45 (1.03–2.03) 0.033
  Non-cardiac cause of arrest 1.44 (1.06–1.96) 0.021
  Initial presence of pupillary light reflex 0.57 (0.42–0.78) <.001
  ST-elevation myocardial infarction 0.55 (0.31–0.98) 0.042
  Coronary angiography 0.51 (0.36–0.73) <.001
  Angina pectoris 0.49 (0.25–0.95) 0.035
  Percutaneous coronary intervention 0.47 (0.26– 0.82) 0.008
  Initial Glasgow coma scale (≥5) 0.44 (0.27– 0.72) 0.001
Sepsis Intra-aortic balloon pump 3.71 (1.43–9.67) 0.007
  Ice bag only 2.17 (1.20–3.94) 0.010
  Unwitnessed arrest 2.11 (1.37–3.24) 0.001
  No bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation 1.78 (1.06–2.99) 0.030
  Cardiogenic shocka 1.72 (1.10–2.68) 0.017
  Non-cardiac cause of arrest 1.65 (1.08–2.53) 0.021
  Coronary angiography 0.58 (0.35–0.98) 0.040
Myoclonusc Ice bag only 2.40 (1.42–4.05) 0.001
  Hydrogel pad 1.58 (1.05–2.38) 0.027
  ST-elevation myocardial infarction 0.36 (0.15–0.85) 0.019
  Cooling garment 0.06 (0.01–0.45) 0.006
Seizured Congestive heart failure 2.68 (1.17–6.17) 0.020
  Non-shockable initial rhythm 1.51 (1.01–2.25) 0.043
  Endovascular cooling 0.64 (0.42–0.97) 0.035
  Coronary angiography 0.54 (0.35–0.83) 0.005
  Initial Glasgow coma scale ≥ 5 0.32 (0.16–0.65) 0.002
Hypoglycemiae Continuous renal replacement therapy 2.59 (1.45–4.62) 0.001
  Renal disease 2.53 (1.32–4.84) 0.005
  Non-shockable initial rhythm 2.06 (1.37–3.11) <.001
  Coronary angiography 0.65 (0.43–0.98) 0.039
  Hydrogel pad 0.55 (0.34–0.88) 0.013
  Percutaneous coronary intervention 0.47 (0.23–0.98) 0.042
  Cooling garment 0.25 (0.09–0.70) 0.008
  1. OR odds ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval
  2. aHypotension (SBP <90 mmHg or MAP <60 mmHg for at least 30 min or the need for supportive measures (fluid loading and vasopressors or inotropic or both) to maintain a SBP >90 mmHg or MAP >60 mmHg) and end-organ hypoperfusion (cool extremities)
  3. bFour requirements: 1) new or progressive consolidation on the chest radiograph, 2) fever, 3) leukocytosis, 4) presence of purulent tracheobronchial secretions
  4. cClinically involuntary movement without epileptiform discharge on EEG
  5. dEither clinically involuntary movement with epileptiform discharge on EEG or epileptiform discharge only on EEG
  6. e ≤ 80 mg/dL within 72 hours after ROSC