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Table 2 Number of surviving days outside the hospital at day 28 as a function of time to antibiotics in ED patients with a suspected infection in three categories of illness severity

From: The association between time to antibiotics and relevant clinical outcomes in emergency department patients with various stages of sepsis: a prospective multi-center study

  Crude model HR (95% CI) Corrected model HR (95% CI) P (Corrected model)
PIRO group 1 to 7    
Antibiotics <1 hour (reference category) 1 1 0.02a
Antibiotics 1–3 hours 0.84 (0.66-1.06) 1.03 (0.78-1.36) 0.824
Antibiotics >3 hours 1.11 (0.84-1.46) 1.46 (1.05-2.02) 0.023
Type of hospital (academic versus urban)   0.635 (0.486-0.831) 0.001
P score   1.16 (1.04-1.30) 0.008
O score   1.03 (0.96-1.12) 0.408
Statin use   1.32 (1.02-1.70) 0.033
Appropriateness of antibiotics   0.61 (0.46-0.81) 0.001
Amount of oxygen (L/min)   1.01 (0.99-1.04) 0.301
Amount of fluids (L/ED stay)   1.23 (1.06-1.43) 0.005
PIRO group 8 to 14
Antibiotics <1 hour (reference category) 1 1 0.984a
Antibiotics 1–3 hours 0.85 (0.70-1.02) 1.02 (0.83-1.25) 0.863
Antibiotics >3 hours 0.79 (0.60-1.04) 1.02 (0.75-1.38) 0.910
Type of hospital (academic versus urban)   0.54 (0.44-0.66) <0.001
P score   1.05 (1.00-1.11) 0.05
O score   1.06 (1.00-1.13) 0.037
Appropriateness of antibiotics   0.76 (0.61-0.93) 0.008
Amount of oxygen (L/min)   1.02 (1.00-1.04) 0.015
Amount of fluids (L/ED stay)   1.03 (0.92-1.16 0.616
PIRO group >14
Antibiotics <1 hour (reference category) 1 1 0.361a
Antibiotics 1–3 hours 1.00 (0.75-1.32) 1.16 (0.86-1.58) 0.366
Antibiotics >3 hours 0.89 (0.57-1.40) 1.40 (0.84-2.34) 0.194
Type of hospital (academic versus urban)   0.69 (0.50-0.96) 0.025
P score   1.10 (1.00-1.22) 0.041
O score   1.09 (1.02-1.17) 0.017
Statin use   0.84 (0.61-1.15) 0.277
Antibiotics use   1.04 (0.77-1.41) 0.789
Appropriateness of antibiotics   0.70 (0.51-0.95) 0.024
Amount of oxygen (L/min)   1.03 (1.01-1.05) 0.014
Amount of fluids (L/ED stay)   1.14 (1.01-1.29) 0.042
  1. Cox regression analysis was performed with time to antibiotics divided into three categories, corrected for possible predefined confounders: PIRO score; antibiotic, β-blocker, or statin use prior to ED presentation; efficacy of antibiotics; amount of fluids (L); amount of oxygen (L/min) in the ED; and type of hospital (academic versus urban hospital). Hazard ratio >1 indicates a larger number of days outside the hospital at day 28 after ED presentation compared to the reference category of time to antibiotics within one hour. aOverall P value for categories of time to antibiotics. The P values were not used to construct the model.
  2. CI, Confidence interval; ED, Emergency department; HR, Hazard ratio; ICU, Intensive care unit; and PIRO, Predisposition, Infection, Response, and Organ failure score (as a measure of illness severity).