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Table 1 Patient characteristics as a function of illness severity as indicated by PIRO category

From: The association between time to antibiotics and relevant clinical outcomes in emergency department patients with various stages of sepsis: a prospective multi-center study

  Total cohort (n = 1,168) PIRO 1 to 7 (n = 413) PIRO 8 to 14 (n = 532) PIRO >14 (n = 223)
Demographics     
Age, mean (SD) 62 (17) 54 (16) 64 (17) 72 (14)
Male sex (%) 650 (56) 211 ((51) 295 (55) 144 (65)
Comorbidities, n (%)     
COPD 191 (16) 23 (6) 101 (19) 67 (30)
Heart disease 104 (9) 24 (6) 51 (10) 29 (13)
Liver disease (1) 42 (4) 11 (3) 13 (2) 18 (13)
Renal disease (1) 172 (15) 55 (13) 72 (14) 45 (20)
Malignancy− 137 (12) 41 (10) 57 (11) 39 (17)
Malignancy+ (2) 131 (11) 32 (8) 63 (12) 36 (16)
Immune-compromised (1) 410 (35) 159 (38) 163 (31) 88 (39)
Nursing home (1) 79 (7) 4 (1) 29 (5) 46 (21)
DNR status (6) 277 (24) 40 (10) 133 (25) 104 (47)
Medication use at ED presentation, n (%)     
β-Blocker/Ca-antagonist (13) 348 (30) 103 (25) 169 (32) 76 (34)
Statins (11) 284 (33) 81 (20) 142 (27) 61 (27)
Antibiotic use (10) 306 (26) 99 (24) 138 (26) 69 (69)
Vital signs at ED presentation, mean (SD)     
Respiratory rate (per minute) (373) 26 (8) 18 (4) 27 (7) 30 (8)
Oxygen saturation (%) (60) 95 (5) 97 (3) 94 (6) 93 (6)
Heart rate (per minute) (40) 109 (20) 105 (18) 109 (20) 116 (23)
Systolic BP (mmHg) (186) 133 (27) 130 (24) 137 (27) 129 (30)
Diastolic BP (mmHg) (187) 76 (17) 75 (15) 77 (17) 72 (19)
Temperature (°C) (32) 38.7 (2.3) 38.6 (1.8) 38.9 (2.8) 38.7 (1.2)
Altered mental status 208 (18) 40 (10) 100 (19) 68 (30)
Febrile chills 278 (24) 126 (31) 114 (21) 38 (17)
Laboratory, median (IQR)     
Lactate (mmol/L) (202) 1.8 (1.3-2.5) 1.6 (1.2-2.1) 1.7 (1.3-2.4) 2.2 (1.6-4.0)
Creatinine (μmol/L) (9) 87 (66–118) 81 (65–102) 83 (64–116) 110 (82–156)
Urea (mmol/L) (31) 6.8 (5–10.1) 5.6 (4.4-7.6) 6.8 (5.0-9.9) 10 (7.7-14.4)
Platelets (1012/mm3) (24) 210 (155–282) 209 (164–279) 218 (163–287) 182 (117–270)
Bilirubin (μmol/L) (404) 12 (8–18) 12 (9–18) 12 (8–18) 13 (9–24)
Suspected site of infection, n (%)     
Lung 617 (513 105 (25) 326 (61) 186 (83)
UTI 335 (29) 113 (27) 145 (27) 77 (35)
Abdominal 199 (17) 89 (22) 83 (16) 27 (12)
Skin 97 (8) 63 (15) 27 (5) 7 (3)
Neurological 33 (3) 10 (1) 16 (3) 7 (3)
Other 192 (16) 86 (21) 86 (16) 20 (9)
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) if normally distributed, or as median (IQR) if rightly skewed. Categorical data are presented as number (%). Percentages of suspected sites of infection do not add up to a 100% because some patients had multiple suspected sites of infection at the time of ED presentation. Missing values are shown in bold between brackets for every variable.
  2. BP, blood pressure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DNR status, do not resuscitate status; ED, emergency department; IQR, interquartile range; Malignancy−, malignancy without metastases; Malignancy+, malignancy with metastases and hematologic malignancy; MV, missing value; PIRO, Predisposition, Infection, Response, and Organ failure score; SD, standard deviation; UTI, urinary tract infection.