Skip to main content

Table 5 Animal and human studies investigating the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on the kidneys

From: Inhaled nitric oxide therapy and risk of renal dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

Study (year) Species Protocols of iNO Main findings
Valvini (1995) [38] Human 40 ppm for 3 days followed by 90 ppm for 2 days 1. Inhaling 40 ppm nitric oxide would result in a daily nitrogen oxide load of about 25 mmol.
2. Impairment of renal function would cause an increase in serum nitrogen oxides.
Troncy (1997) [9] Swine 40 ppm iNO Inhaled nitric oxide increased renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate and urinary flow.
Preiser (1998) [37] Human 1 to 20 ppm 1. Renal excretion of NO2 and NO3 was unaltered by nitric oxide inhalation.
2. Long-term nitric oxide inhalation was associated with a consistent increase in the NO3 plasma concentration.
Wraight (2001) [36] Human 40 ppm for 2 h Inhaled nitric oxide may alter tubular salt and water resorbtion.
Kielbasa (2001) [35] Rat 49 or 107 ppm iNO for 4 h High dose of iNO increased nitric oxide synthase III protein expression, and nitrotyrosine and phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity.
Da (2007) [34] Swine 30 ppm iNO for 3.5 h Decreased swelling and necrosis of glomeruli.
Gozdzik (2009) [33] Swine 40 ppm iNO for 30 h 1. Transient natriuretic effect.
2. Renal tubular apoptosis promotion after 30 h of iNO treatment.
Göranson (2014) [44] Swine 30 ppm iNO for 30 h Combined therapy with iNO and intravenous steroid is associated with partial protection of kidney function.