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Table 2 The haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in patients anaesthetised using etomidate/suxamethonium (Group 1) and fentanyl/ketamine/rocuronium (Group 2), stratified by dose administered

From: Significant modification of traditional rapid sequence induction improves safety and effectiveness of pre-hospital trauma anaesthesia

A) Full-dose RSI protocol
  Baseline Procedural Absolute difference (95% CI) P -value
Group 1     
Heart rate, bpma 89 (72 to 104) 111 (98 to 132) 22 (14 to 38) <0.0001
Mean arterial pressure, mmHgb 98 (90 to 108) 128 (113 to 145) 31 (15 to 48) <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHgb 129 (114 to 144) 170 (151 to 196) 44 (22 to 61) <0.0001
Group 2     
Heart rate, bpmc 87 (74 to 101) 112 (97 to 125) 25 (18 to 30) <0.0001
Mean arterial pressure, mmHgd 102 (90 to 113) 107 (91 to 121) 5 (−1 to 10) 0.148
Systolic blood pressure, mmHgd 133 (120 to 149) 140 (120 to 155) 7 (−3 to 11) 0.257
B) Reduced-dose protocol
  Baseline Procedural Absolute difference (95% CI) P -value
Group 1     
Heart rate, bpme 107 (84 to 121) 122 (111 to 137) 15 (4 to 27) 0.009
Mean arterial pressure, mmHgf 79 (54 to 95) 99 (78 to 117) 20 (6 to 36) 0.004
Systolic blood pressure, mmHgf 100 (71 to 115) 129 (100 to 147) 29 (13 to 48) 0.001
Group 2     
Heart rate, bpmg 106 (91 to 131) 123 (105 to 143) 17 (−2 to 28) 0.095
Mean arterial pressure, mmHgf 95 (70 to 109) 101 (89 to 126) 6 (−3 to 28) 0.117
Systolic blood pressure, mmHgf 117 (104 to 145) 129 (110 to 149) 9 (−7 to 28) 0.256
  1. Data are presented as median (IQR). Analysis based on a74, b 66, c104 and d95, e36, f24 and g31 patients with complete sets of haemodynamic data. A) Full-dose rapid sequence induction (RSI) protocol and B) reduced-dose RSI protocol.