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Table 2 Crude hazard ratio of COPD patients’ serious events

From: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease increases the risk of intensive care unit admittance and mechanical ventilation use among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study

Factor ICU admittance Ventilator used
Hazard ratio 95% CI Hazard ratio 95% CI
Without GORD Reference Reference
With GORD 1.67 1.22 to 2.27*** 1.85 1.31 to 2.62***
Male 1.12 0.8 to 1.56 1.18 0.81 to 1.72
Age 40 to 50 Reference Reference
Age 51 to 60 3.48 1.31 to 9.28* 1.48 0.58 to 3.76
Age 61 to 70 6.6 2.62 to 16.6*** 3.64 1.62 to 8.2***
Age 71 to 80 9.92 4.00 to 24.6*** 5.02 2.27 to 11.1***
Age ≥80 12.2 4.66 to 31.8*** 8.99 3.9 to 20.7***
CCI = 0 Reference Reference
CCI = 1 to 3 1.77 0.24 to 12.9 1.59 0.22 to 11.6
CCI = 4 to 6 3.09 0.43 to 22.4 2.3 0.32 to 16.8
CCI ≥7 9.59 1.33 to 68.9* 7.13 0.99 to 51.5
Theophylline used 1.26 0.77 to 2.06 1.87 0.98 to 3.57
Proxy COPD severity 2.24 1.21 to 4.12** 1.48 0.65 to 3.37
Residential area  
 Urban Reference Reference
 Suburban 1.32 0.95 to 1.82 1.55 1.08 to 2.23
 Rural 0.89 0.50 to 1.60 1.14 0.61 to 2.12
Occupation categories  
 Category 1 Reference Reference
 Category 2 1.13 0.77 to 1.66 1.6 1.01 to 2.55*
 Category 2 1.28 0.84 to 1.94 1.76 1.07 to 2.90*
Monthly insurance premium ($NT)a
 No fee Reference Reference
 1to 19,199 0.76 0.51 to 1.12 1.04 0.67 to 1.61
 19,200 to 23,999 0.63 0.43 to 0.92* 0.77 0.5 to 1.2
  ≥ 24,000 0.29 0.15 to 0.56*** 0.24 0.1 to 0.56***
  1. CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GORD, gastro-esophageal reflux disease; NT, new Taiwan dollar. *P <0.05, **P <0.01, ***P <0.0001. aUS$1 $NT30.