Skip to main content

Table 4 Patient traits for chemoprophylaxis studies that excluded those with early increased intracranial hemorrhage

From: Timing for deep vein thrombosis chemoprophylaxis in traumatic brain injury: an evidence-based review

Study ICH percentage GCS/hAIS Other exclusions CP day
Arnold et al. [28] 100 NR DAI; cerebral edema; craniotomy -
Cothren et al. [21] NR GCS 3-7 systemic anticoagulation; diagnosis of DVT; placement of vena cava filter -
Depew et al. [22] 100 MS ≥2 Mass-effect -
Kleindienst et al. [23] 36 NR None; 16% of candidates excluded -
Levy et al. [11] ~50 hAIS 4 Hospital LOS <3 days 3
Norwood et al. [24] NR GCS 3-8 LOS <3 days; ISS <9; spinal cord injury; coagulopathy; LMWH not at appropriate time; no duplex scan at discharge; high risk for bleeding -
Norwood et al. [24] NR hAIS ≥2 See above -
Norwood et al. [13] 100 GCS 10.0, hAIS 3.6 LOS <2 days; coagulopathy; expected brain death -
Norwood et al. [14] NR GCS 10.4, hAIS 3.6 Surgeon reluctance despite meeting criteria n = 24%; large ICH; persistent ICP >20; expected brain death; hospital LOS <3 days; solid organ injury; spinal cord hematoma; coagulopathy; pre-injury antithrombotic -
Pahatouridis et al. [25] NR GCS 9-12 Extra-cranial injury; surgery; coagulopathy -
Phelan et al. [26] 96 GCS 13.5 Large ICH; persistent ICP >20 torr 1
Phelan et al. [26] 93 GCS 13.0 Large ICH; persistent ICP >20 torr 4
Salottolo et al. [27] NR GCS ≤8 (29%), hAIS 3.5 Hospital LOS <3 days; death in 7 days; IVC filter; pre-injury antithrombotic -
Scudday et al. [29] NR GCS >9 (50%), hAIS 3.4 Craniotomy; hospital LOS ≤3 days -
  1. Dashes in the ‘CP day’ column indicate no ICH percentage, GCS, hAIS, or patient exclusion variance according to day of CP administration. CP, chemoprophylaxis; DAI, diffuse axonal injury; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; GCS, Glasgow Coma Score; hAIS, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score; ICP, intracranial pressure; ICH, intracranial hemorrhage; ISS, Injury Severity Score; IVC, inferior vena cava; LOS, length of stay; LMWH, low molecular weight heparin; MS, Marshall score; NR, not reported.