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Table 1 Characteristics of participating hospitals, intensive care units, and providers

From: Perceptions of the appropriateness of care in California adult intensive care units

Characteristic  
Hospital characteristicsa(n = 56) Participatingbnumber (percentage or IQR)
Hospital size  
 Small (<99 beds) 4 (7.1)
 Moderate (100-399 beds) 44 (78.6)
 Large (400+ beds) 8 (14.3)
Type of hospital  
 Not-for profit 45 (80.3)
 For profitc 4 (7.1)
 State 7 (12.5)
ICU size  
 <10 beds 9 (16.1)
 10-30 beds 32 (57.1)
 >30 beds 15 (26.8)
Region  
 Northern California 22 (39.3)
 Central California 13 (23.2)
 Southern California 21 (37.5)
Academic status  
 Teaching hospital 9 (16.1)
System  
 Part of hospital systemc,d 42 (75)
ICU mortality (%) (2011)e 12.3 (10.5-13.3)
ICU characteristicsf(n = 56)  
Median number of FTE ICU nurses 45 (25.6-65)
Median number of FTE ICU physicians 4 (2-7)
Median patient-to-intensivist ratio 10 (8-14.1)
Availability of an ethics service 44 (78.6)
24-hour presence of a senior intensivist 10 (17.9)
Availability of an ICU step-down unit 30 (53.6)
Daily multi-disciplinary rounds 42 (75.0)
Guideline or provider order entry set for end-of-life care 39 (69.6)
Provider characteristics (n = 1,363)  
Median age in years 42 (35-51)
Number of female respondents 995 (73.0)
Professional role in the ICU  
Nurse 1,156 (84.7)
Certified critical care nurse 291 (21.3)
Registered nurse 865 (63.5)
Nurse practitioner/physician assistant 10 (0.73)
 Physician 198 (14.5)
 Board-certified critical care physician 130 (9.5)
 Hospitalist 11 (0.8)
 Resident/fellow 20 (1.5)
 Other 37 (2.7)
Type of ICU  
 Mixed MICU/SICU 755/1,363 (55.4)
 MICU 211/1,363 (15.5)
 TICU/SICU 171/1,363 (12.5)
 Other (burns, neuro, cardiac) 226/1,363 (16.5)
Median number of years working in ICU (IQR) 7 (3-13)
Median number of hours worked per week(IQR) 36 (32-40)
Number who were trained in current ICU 799 (58.6)
Received formal training in talking with patients and families about end-of-life decisions 431 (31.6)
Treated any patient who had a completed POLST form 1051 (77.1)
Involved in any medico-legal claim, regardless of outcome (physicians/PA/NP only) 83/206 (40.3)
  1. aHospital characteristics derived from Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (California). bAll data are shown as number/total number (percentage) or median (interquartile range). Owing to rounding, percentages may not sum to 100%. cSignificant difference between respondent and non-respondent groups by using chi-square test at P value of less 0.05. dA hospital belongs to a system if there are more than three hospitals under the management or ownership of a central organization. eIntensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality obtained from California Hospital Assessment and Reporting Task Force (CHART) project, previously available at www.calhospitalcompare.org and is for the period October 2010 to September 2011. fICU characteristics are from data provided by the ICU manager at each site. FTE, full-time equivalent; IQR, interquartile range; MICU, medical intensive care unit; NP, nurse practitioner; PA, physician’s assistant; POLST, Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment; SICU, surgical intermediate care unit; TICU, thoracic intermediate care unit.