The pathophysiological processes of local hemostasis, immunothrombosis, and systemic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Tissue injury promotes local hemostasis and wound healing. Tissue injury also induces microvascular fibrin thrombosis called immunothrombosis to protect the host from altered-self (damage-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs) and to restrict the DAMPs in the injured vascular compartment. DIC results when local hemostasis and immunothrombosis are no longer able to anchor thrombin or to restrict the spread DAMPs at the injured site. NET, neutrophil extracellular trap; TFPI, tissue factor pathway inhibitor.