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Table 1 Characteristics of the study cohort on intensive care unit admission a

From: Epidemiology of invasive aspergillosis in critically ill patients: clinical presentation, underlying conditions, and outcomes

  All patients ( N= 563) Proven IA ( n= 94) Putative IA ( n= 203) Colonization ( n= 266)
Age, yr 61 ± 17 60 ± 13 62 ± 16 61 ± 18
Male, n (%) 341 (61) 54 (57) 127 (63) 160 (60)
BMI, kg/m2 24 (21 to 27) 24 (21 to 26) 23 (20 to 27) 25 (22 to 28)
Underlying conditions, n (%)    
 No underlying disease 76 (14) 4 (4)b 11 (5)b 61 (23)
 COPD 174 (31) 22 (23)# 80 (39)b 72 (27)
 Chronic heart failure 55 (10) 8 (9) 19 (9) 28 (11)
 Diabetes 92 (16) 19 (19) 33 (16) 40 (15)
 Solid tumor 58 (10) 13 (14) 21 (9) 24 (9)
 Hematologic cancer/BMT 48 (8) 15 (16)b 31 (15)b 6 (2)
 Neutropenia 40 (7) 5 (5)b 18 (9)b 3 (1)
 Radiotherapy/chemotherapy 53 (9) 12 (13)b 33 (16)b 8 (3)
 Solid organ transplant 56 (10) 19 (20)b 28 (14)b 9 (4)
 Immunosuppressive drugs 59 (11) 27 (29)b # 25 (12)b 7 (3)
 HIV 5 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) 3 (1)
 Liver disease 40 (7) 13 (14)b 14 (7) 13 (5)
 Chronic hemodialysis 22 (4) 3 (3) 8 (4) 11 (4)
 Smoking 88 (16) 15 (16) 28 (14) 45 (17)
 Alcohol abuse 54 (10) 9 (10) 16 (8) 29 (11)
Diagnostic categories, n (%)    
 Medical admission 392 (70) 79 (84)b,c 94 (46)b 152 (57)
 Cardiovascular 147 (26) 29 (30) 49 (24) 69 (26)
 Respiratory 222 (39) 38 (41)b,c 107 (53)b 77 (29)
 Neurological 32 (6) 3 (3)b 3 (2)b 26 (10)
 Intoxication 5 (1) 0 1 (1) 4 (2)
 Gastrointestinal 37 (7) 6 (7) 13 (6) 18 (7)
 Endocrine 18 (3) 8 (9)b 10 (5)b 0
 Post-operative 48 (9) 7 (8) 15 (7) 26 (10)
 Trauma 47 (8) 2 (2)b 3 (2)b 42 (16)
 Others 7 (1) 1 (1) 2 (1) 4 (1)
Severity scores and main diagnoses    
 APACHE II score on admission 23 (17 to 28) 24 (18 to 28) 25 (17 to 30) 23 (17 to 28)
 Sepsis on ICU admission 222 (39) 47 (51)b 94 (46)b 81 (30)
 ARDS on ICU admission 57 (10) 24 (26)b # 21 (10)b 12 (4)
 Septic shock, n (%) 64 (11) 14 (15)b 29 (14)b 21 (8)
 Traumatic brain injury, n (%) 28 (5) 0b 1 (1)b 27 (10)
 Pneumonia, n (%) 72 (13) 15 (16) 29 (14) 28 (11)
 Other brain injuries, n (%) 23 (4) 1 (1)b 2 (1)b 20 (8)
 Acute heart failure/CABG, n (%) 39 (7) 3 (3)b 6 (3)b 30 (11)
 Pancreatitis, n (%) 7 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) 5 (1)
 Prophylactic antifungals, n (%) 32 (6) 8 (9)b 19 (9)b 5 (2)
 Antifungal therapy, n (%) 285 (51) 78 (85)b,c 147 (72)b 60 (22)
 Duration of therapy, daysd 13 (6 to 28) 10 (4 to 24) 12 (7 to 29) 18 (9 to 28)
  1. #p < 0.05 vs. Putative IA aAPACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ICU, Intensive care unit; ARDS, Acute respiratory distress syndrome; BMI, Body mass index; BMT, Bone marrow transplant; CABG, Coronary artery bypass graft; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IA, Invasive aspergillosis; RRT, Renal replacement therapy. b P < 0.05 versus colonization; c P < 0.05 versus putative IA. dCalculated among those patients receiving therapy.