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Table 3 Comparison of studies investigating antibiotic treatment in patients with sepsis

From: The early antibiotic therapy in septic patients - milestone or sticking point?

Parameter Kumar et al . [ [4]] Crit Care Med (2006) Ferrer et al . [ [10] Crit Care Med (2014) Puskarich et al . [ [11]] Crit Care Med (2011) Bloos et al . [ [12]] Crit Care (2014) Hranjec et al . [ [13]] Lancet Infect Dis (2012)
Study design Retrospective multicenter cohort study Retrospective analysis of prospective collected dataset multicenter Prospective preplanned analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial Prospective multicenter cohort study Prospective quasi-experimental, before-and-after observational study single center
Setting ICU septic shock ICU mixed ED septic shock ICU ICU-acquired infection
      Aggressive Conservative
Patients 2,731 17,993 291 1,011 247 237
Age, years 63 NR 62 (IQR 50–73) 69 NR NR
Gender, male 54% NR 53% 63% NR NR
APACHE score 26 ± 9 NR NR NR NR NR
SAPS II NR NR 42 (IQR 30–55) 48 (IQR 37–60) NR NR
SOFA score NR NR 6 (IQR 4–9) 10 (IQR 8–12) NR NR
MEDS score NR NR 11 (IQR 8–14) NR NR NR
Septic shock 2,731 (100%) 11,558 (64.2%) 291 (100%) NR 38.5% 46.4%
Positive BC 34.2% NR 100 (34.4%) 317 (48.8%) NR NR
Nosocomial 58.1% 12.2% NR 56.2% NR NR
Median time to shock recognition NR NR 89 (IQR 48–180) NR NR NR
Overall mortality 56.2% 31.3% 55 (18.9%) 41.4% 99 (40.1%) 50 (21.1%)
Mortality for BC-positive septic shock NR NR 26/100 (26.0%) NR NR NR
Mortality for BC-negative septic shock NR NR 29/191 (15.2%) NR NR NR
Infection site       
Pneumonia 1,016 (37.2%) 8,487 (47.2%) 99 (34.0%) 351 (34.9%) 75 (20%) 93 (39%)
UTI 293 (10.7%) 4,757 (26.4%) 71 (24.4%) 122 (12.1%) 33 (13%) 36 (15%)
Intra-abdominal 801 (29.3%) 3,505 (19.5%) 49 (16.8%) 366 (36.3%) 31 (13%) 22 (9%)
Skin and soft tissue 197 (7.2%) 1,133 (6.3%) 23 (7.9%) NR NR NR
Intravascular catheter 100 (3.7%) 661 (3.7%) 11 (3.8%) NR 14 (6%) 8 (3%)
Surgical wounds 31 (1.1%) 815 (4.5%) 7 (2.4%) NR 19 (8%) 21 (9%)
Endocarditis NR 187 (1.0%) 4 (1.4%) NR NR NR
CNSI (e.g., meningitis) 20 (0.7%) 277 (15%) 3 (1.0%) NR NR NR
Septic arthritis 21 (0.8%) NR 2 (0.7%) NR NR NR
SDI 58 (2.1%) NR 1 (0.3%) NR NR NR
Ear, nose, throat NR NR 1 (0.3%) NR NR NR
Toxic shock syndrome NR NR 1 (0.3%) NR NR NR
Unknown 120 (4.4%) NR 40 (13.8%) 50 (5%) 49 (20%) 46 (19%)
Two or more sources NR NR 21 (7.2%) NR NR NR
Mediastinitis 15 (0.5%) NR NR NR NR NR
Other 59 (2.1%) 1,980 (11.0%) NR 105 (10.4%) 26 (11%) 11 (5%)
Bone NR 232 (1.3%) NR NR NR NR
Device NR 219 (1.2%) NR NR NR NR
Bone/soft tissue NR NR NR 72 (7.1%) NR NR
Upper airway NR NR NR 83 (8.2%) NR NR
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; BC, blood culture; CNSI, central nervous system infection; ED, emergency department; IQR, interquartile range; MEDS, Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis; NR, not reported; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; SDI, systemically disseminated infection; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; UTI, urinary tract infection.
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