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Table 1 General characteristics

From: Decision support tool for differential diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) vs Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (CPE): a prospective validation and meta-analysis

   Prospective validation cohort  
  n ALI/ALI + CPE (n = 72) CPE (n = 73) P -value
General Characteristics       
Age, years   61 (49 to 69) 73 (63 to 79) <0.001
<45 years   13 (9) 7 (5) 0.25
Female sex   50 (36) 40 (29) 0.21
Body mass index   27 (23 to 35) 27 (24 to 32) 0.73
APACHE III score   53 (38 to 73) 52 (36 to 69) 0.70
Charlson score   2 (0 to 3) 2 (1 to 5) 0.07
Smoking 132 37 (25) 46 (30) 0.30
Referral patient   82 (59) 75 (55) 0.33
Admission ICU       0.04
medical   61 (44) 78 (57)  
surgical   10 (7) 10 (7)  
mixed   29 (21) 12 (9)  
Non-invasive ventilation only   4 (3) 23 (17) 0.001
Invasive mechanical ventilation   92 (66) 67 (49) <0.001
ARDS (Berlin definition [1])*   81 (58) na   na
Hospital mortality   47 (34) 15 (11) <0.001
ALI risk factors       
Sepsis   57 (41) 23 (17) <0.001
Pancreatitis   0 (0) 1 (1) 0.32
Pneumonia   33 (24) 11 (8) 0.001
Aspiration   8 (6) 0 (0) 0.01
CPE risk factors       
History of coronary artery disease   11 (8) 47 (34) <0.001
History of congestive heart failure   11 (8) 33 (24) 0.002
New ST-changes/left-bundle branch block 110 8 (4) 31 (19) 0.003
Other predictors       
Alcohol abuse 135 19 (13) 6 (4) 0.02
Chemotherapy 144 21 (15) 6 (4) 0.006
SpO2/FiO2 ratio at 6 h after onset of acute pulmonary edema 141 181 (129 to 267) 240 (175 to 436) 0.002
<235 141 71 (48) 43 (31) 0.001
  1. Data are presented as median (IQR) or percent (number); Total number was 145 unless noted otherwise. *ALI patients with positive end-exiratory pressure ≥5cmH2O within 12 h of acute pulmonary edema (94% met this criterion within 48 h). ALI, acute lung injury; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CPE, cardiogenic pulmonary edema; APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; FiO2: inspired oxygen fraction; SpO2, peripheral oxygen saturation; na, not applicable.