Serum concentrations of glycocalyx components. Serum concentrations of heparan sulfate (a), hyaluronan (b) and syndecan 1 (c) before (pre) and after (post) volume loading (VL, n = 9) or acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH, n = 9) with 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4. To account for hemodilution, individual heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and syndecan 1 concentrations were normalized to the individual albumin concentrations. Data are given as mean ± SEM. *P <0.05 (significantly different from pre).