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Table 1 Indications for parenteral nutrition

From: Development and current use of parenteral nutrition in critical care – an opinion paper

• Prolonged ileus >3 days
  Mechanical obstruction
  Generalized peritonitis
  Peritoneal carcinosis
  Abdominal distension on enteral nutrition
• Short bowel syndrome
  Mesenteric infarction
  Extensive small bowel resection leaving <1.5 m
• Severe malabsorption
  Radiation injury to the intestine
  High output fistulae (jejunal > ileal)
  Inflammatory bowel diseases in acute phase
  Splanchnic ischemia
• Time to reach full enteral nutrition or oral >5 days
• Insufficient energy intakes
• Hyperemesis gravidarum
• High risk of aspiration