Changes in aortic root and aortic arch mRNA expression for cytokines and adhesion molecules (tumor necrosis factor α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) determined using RT-PCR in wild-type mice. (A) Relative expression at days 1, 3 and 5 days are presented. CCL2, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; CLP, Cecal ligation and puncture; TNF-α, Tumor necrosis factor α. Immunofluorescent images of the aortic root obtained to determine the expression of adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) (left to right: secondary antibody-only control, sham, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)). ICAM-1 is shown in green, VCAM-1 in red and nuclear material in blue (4-,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI)). Inset shows possible colocalization of ICAM-1 with VCAM-1. (B) Graph presents cell adhesion to inflamed aortic endothelium at days 1, 3 and 5 days. Representative images show monocyte adhesion to the endothelium by day 5 (*P < 0.05 compared to the time-matched sham-treated groups).