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Table 2 Controlled studies on the effect of vitamin C in cardiac surgery patients

From: Vitamin C revisited

Study Design Intervention Number of patients Incidence of new POAF (%) Pvalue Other clinical benefits
Dingchao and colleagues [101] Controlled; patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass i.v. vitamin C; 250 mg/kg i.v. before 45    MDA ↓; CK, CK-MB ↓; postbypass defibrillation 0 vs. 12.5 %; CI ↑, LOS ICU ↓, LOS hospital ↓
   Control 40    
Carnes and colleagues [82] Matched control; CABG Oral vitamin C; 2 g night before, 500 mg daily for 5 days 43 16.3 0.048  
   Matched control 43 34.9   
Eslami and colleagues [98] RCT; CABG β-Blocker + oral vitamin C; 2 g night before, 1 g twice daily for 5 days 50 4 0.002  
   β-Blocker alone 50 26   
Bjordahl and colleagues [99] RCT; CABG Oral vitamin C; 2 g night before, 1 g twice daily for 5 days 89 30.3 0.985 Shorter time on ventilator, 1.2 vs. 1.4 days, P = 0.032
   Placebo 96 30.2   
Papoulidis and colleagues [100] RCT; CABG i.v. vitamin C; 2 g 3 hours before CPB 85 44.7 0.041 Time to SR conversion ↓, LOS hospital ↓, LOS ICU ↓
   i.v. saline 85 61.2   
Rodrigo and colleagues [95] RCT Preoperative PUFA; 2 g/day for 5 days; vitamin C 1 g/day + vitamin E 400 IU/day for 2 days preoperatively and postoperatively until discharge 103 9.7 <0.001 Oxidative stress-related biomarkers in atrial tissue ↓
   Placeboa 100 32   
  1. CABG, coronary artery bypass surgery; CI, cardiac index; CK, creatinine phophokinase; CK-MB, creatinine phosphokinase muscle, brain isoenzyme; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; i.v., intravenously; LOS, length of stay; MDA, malondialdehyde; POAF, postoperative atrial fibrillation; PUFA, ω-3 polu-unsaturated fatty acids containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in a 1:2 ratio; RCT, randomized controlled trial; SR, sinus rhythm; ↑, increase; ↓, decrease; =, constant. aPlacebo contained 500 mg inert microgranules, 825 mg triglycerides and 500 mg vegetable oil per capsule.