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Table 2 Safety, efficacy and clinical study outcomes

From: Insulin treatment guided by subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring compared to frequent point-of-care measurement in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial

  Intervention - CGM Control - POCM P
(n = 78) (n = 78)
Study period (days) 3.2 (2-5) 2.8 (1-5) 0.18
Incidence severe hypoglycemia (<2.2 mmol/L)1 None None  
Detected by CGM    
 Number of subjects 3 (4%) 4 (5%) 1.0
 Episodes < 2.2 mmol/L 3 4  
% of time for the reference glucose level (SD)3    
In target range (5.0-9.0 mmol/L) 69 (26) 66 (26) 0.47
Below target range (2.2-5.0 mmol/L) 5 (7) 3 (5) 0.21
 Mild/moderate hypoglycemia (2.2-3.9) 1 (3) 0 (1) 0.03
Above target range (>9.0 mmol/L) 28 (26) 34 (27) 0.06
 Mild/moderate hyperglycemia (9.0-11.1) 17 (16) 26 (23) 0.01
 Hyperglycemia (>11.1) 11(19) 7(14) 0.19
% of time for the sensor glucose levels (SD)3    
In target range (5.0-9.0 mmol/L) 75 (18) 71 (20) 0.18
Below target range (2.2-5.0 mmol/L) 11 (13) 9 (12) 0.44
 Mild/moderate hypoglycemia (2.2-3.9) 2 (7) 1 (2) 0.14
Above target range (>9.0 mmol/L) 15 (16) 20 (21) 0.06
 Mild/moderate hyperglycemia (9.0-11.1) 12 (11) 16 (16) 0.03
 Hyperglycemia (>11.1) 3 (7) 4 (9) 0.35
Mean reference blood glucose (mmol/L) 8.2 (1.6) 8.3 (1.3) 0.53
Mean sensor glucose (mmol/L) 7.1 (1.1) 7.5 (1.3) 0.07
MAG change (mmol/L/h)2 0.33 (0.2-0.5) 0.32(0.2-0.4) 0.31
LOS ICU (hours) 137 (71-250) 95 (51-157) 0.04
LOS hospital (days) 15 (8-270) 14 (8-31) 0.91
Mortality ICU 15 (19%) 12 (15%) 0.67
Mortality hospital 22 (28%) 17 (22%) 0.46
  1. Data shown are mean (SD), median (IQR), or n (%). 1Patients who experienced at least one severe hypo- or hyperglycemic episode, verified by blood gas analysis; 2when at least three reference glucose measurements were available (intervention n = 73, control n = 71); 3percentages do not add up to 100 due to rounding off. CGM: continuous glucose monitoring; POCM: point-of-care measurement, MAG: mean absolute glucose change; LOS: length of stay; ICU: intensive care unit.