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Table 2 Overview of hemodynamic monitoring techniques

From: Cardiac output monitoring: an integrative perspective

     Additional variables
Groups Examples Features Invasiveness Continuous CO Static Dynamic SvO2/ScvO2
PAC        
  Vigilance™ Right heart catheterization ■ ■ ■ Response time up to 12 minutes CVP PCWP - Specific catheter for continuous measurement available
Pulse wave analysis        
Calibrated PiCCOplus Thermistor-tipped arterial catheter Central venous line ■ ■ Response time 3 seconds CVP GEDV EVLW SVV PPV Specific catheter for continuous Measurement available
  LiDCOplus Lithium dilution set ■□ Beat-by-beat - SVV PPV -
  EV1000™/ Thermistor-tipped ■ ■ NA CVP SVV Specific catheter
  VolumeView™* arterial catheter    GEDV   for continuous
   Central venous line    EVLW   Measurement available
Uncalibrated FloTrac/Vigileo™ Specific arterial pressure sensor Response time 20 seconds - SVV Specific catheter for continuous Measurement available
  LiDCOrapid Regular arterial line Beat-by-beat - SVV PPV -
  PulsioFlex™* Regular arterial line Specific sensor NA - SVV PPV Specific catheter for continuous Measurement available
  PRAM MostCare® Specific arterial kit Beat-by-beat - SVV PPV -
  Nexfin™HD Specific pressure Beat-by-beat - - -
   sensors      
Doppler        
TE CardioQ™ Esophageal Limitation: - - -
   Flowprobe   probe    
     positioning    
TT USCOM™ Flowprobe Intermittent - - -
Applied Fick principle        
Partial CO2 rebreathing NiCO™ Rebreating loop Up-date every 3' - - -
Dye dilution DDG analyzer® Specific sensor Intermittent - - -
Bioimpedance/Bioreactance        
Endotracheal bioimpedance ECOM™ Specific endotracheal tube, arterial line Continuous - - -
Thoracic/whole body bioimpedance BioZ® Specific electrodes Continuous - - -
Thoracic bioreactance NICOM™ Specific electrodes Continuous - SVV -
  1. CO: cardiac output; CVP: central venous pressure; EVLW: extravascular lung water; GEDV: global end-diastolic volume; NA: technical specifications not yet available; PAC: pulmonary artery catheter; PAOP: pulmonary artery occlusion pressure; PPV: pulse pressure variation; SvO2: mixed venous oxygen saturation; ScvO2; central venous oxy gen saturation; SVV; stroke volume variation; TE: transesophageal; TT: transthoracic; *not yet available.