Skip to content


  • Poster presentation
  • Open Access

Antiembolic stockings and pneumatic compression devices in a medical-surgical thromboprophylaxis trial

  • 1,
  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 3,
  • 4,
  • 2,
  • 5,
  • 6,
  • 7,
  • 8,
  • 9,
  • 9,
  • 10,
  • 11,
  • 11,
  • 12,
  • 12 and
  • 1
Critical Care201115 (Suppl 1) :P21

  • Published:


  • Major Bleeding
  • Daily Exposure
  • Research Coordinator
  • Protocol Violation
  • Mechanical Prophylaxis


A recent randomized trial (CLOTS-1) has called into question the utility of antiembolic stockings (AESs); another trial (CLOTS-2) suggested harm with below-knee compared with above-knee AESs. AESs and pneumatic compression devices (PCD)s could represent important co-interventions in a heparin thromboprophylaxis trial if exposure was lengthy and frequent. Our objective was to document the use of AESs and PCDs applied per protocol and by protocol violation in a trial comparing UFH versus LMWH in medical-surgical ICU patients (NCT00182143).


A total of 3,659 patients were recruited internationally. The blinded study drug was administered daily in the ICU. Mechanical prophylaxis was only protocolized for use if anticoagulant prophylaxis was contraindicated (major bleeding, high risk for major bleeding, or suspected or proven heparin-associated thrombocytopenia). Research coordinators prospectively documented daily exposure to study drugs and mechanical prophylaxis.


A total of 3,659 patients were enrolled for a median (IQR) ICU stay of 9 (5, 16) days. AESs were used per protocol in 17.1% of patients for 1 (1, 1) day; 14.1% of the patients had knee-length stockings. AESs used in violation of the protocol occurred in only 2.6% of patients (1.9% of the patients had knee-length stockings), for which the duration of exposure was 1.5 (1, 4) days. PCDs were used per protocol in 11.1% of patients for 1 (1, 3) days, and in 1.8% of patients for 2 (1, 3) days in violation of protocol.


In keeping with uncertain effectiveness of mechanical thromboprophylaxis, and emerging evidence about harm with knee-length stockings, the co-intervention of mechanical thromboprophylaxis on the results of the PROTECT testing anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis trial will be minimal. AES and PCD use was brief, and largely reserved for days when heparin was contraindicated, as per clinical practice.



For the PROTECT Investigators, CCCTG and ANZICS-CTG.

Authors’ Affiliations

McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada
Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada
Maisonneuve Rosemont, Montreal, Canada
The George Institute, Sydney, Australia
Nepean Hospital, Sydney, Australia
Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK
King Faisal Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
King Abdulaziz Hospital, Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia
King Abdulaziz Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
King Fahad Hospital, Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia
Riyadh Military Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


  1. CLOTS Trials Collaboration: Effectiveness of thigh-length graduated compression stockings to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis after stroke (CLOTS trial 1): a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2009, 373: 1958-1965. 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60941-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. CLOTS Trial Collaboration: Thigh-length versus below-knee stockings for deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis after stroke: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010, 153: 553-562.View ArticleGoogle Scholar


© Zytaruk et al. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.