Volume 15 Supplement 1
Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a KKH case series
© Shah et al. 2011
Published: 1 March 2011
The incidence, presentation and risk factors of peripartum cardiomyopathy in Singapore are not known.
Seven patients' case notes were reviewed following IRB approval.
Incidence was 1:2,285 deliveries. Symptoms appeared 1 hour post-LSCS delivery intraoperatively to postpartum day 5, with diagnosis within a few days. Dyspnoea, desaturation, frusemide-induced diuresis, and CXR evidence of pulmonary congestion/oedema occurred in all. Troponin I (measured in 6/7 cases) and CKMB (measured in 5/7) were raised, and then (troponin I repeated in 4/6 and CKMB repeated in 3/5) showed a declining trend. BNP and CRP (measured in Case 6 only) were raised. 2D-ECHO showed worst LVEF 25 (19 to 35)%, median (range), at time of diagnosis, <25% (Cases 1 and 3), valvular abnormalities (4/7), LV diastolic dysfunction (2/7), two-chamber enlargement (3/7), one-chamber enlargement (1/7), and follow-up 2D-ECHO (done in 5/7) showed last LVEF 55 (35 to 65)%, median (range) (Cases 1 and 6, <45%), and valvular abnormalities (3/7). All were Asian (except for one German, typical of our hospital's ethnic mix), mean age was 29.7 years (with only one older: 38 years), mean parity was 1.67 (6/7), all had singleton pregnancy, mean BMI was 28.2 (6/7, one with BMI: 36.1), and preterm labour (3/7, two of which had failed tocolysis with oral adalat and i.v. salbutamol), prostin induction of labour (3/7), caesarean delivery (3/7), and postpartum haemorrhage (3/7) were also noted. They were all managed aggressively without delay. Treatment included oxygen therapy (all), intubation, sedation and ventilation (6/7), BiPAP (3/7), pleural drainage (2/7), frusemide, digoxin and ACE inhibitors (for example, perindopril, enalapril) (all), antibiotic(s) for pneumonia (for example, tazocin, coamoxiclav, ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, metronidazole) (6/7), anticoagulant/antiplatelet prophylaxis (for example, fraxiparine, clexane, aspirin, warfarin) (6/7), beta-blockers (for example, carvedilol, bisoprolol, labetalol) (5/7), other inotropes, namely dobutamine (2/7, in one patient with noradrenaline) and milrinone (1/7), and vasodilators, namely GTN and hydralazine (1/7). Total hospitalisation from time of diagnosis was 5 to 9 days. Following 4 (1 to 8) months, median (range), follow-up, 4/7 made full recovery, 1/7 partial recovery, 1/7 temporary recovery, and 1/7 defaulted. Case 2 resulted in a neonatal death.
Possible risk factors are multiparity, preterm labour requiring tocolysis, prostin induction of labour, and postpartum haemorrhage.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.