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Table 4 Comparison of indication for fluid, seniority of fluid prescriber and patient characteristics present in relation to administration of crystalloid, colloid or blood by episode for 4,488 fluid resuscitation episodes in 1,955 study participants

From: Resuscitation fluid use in critically ill adults: an international cross-sectional study in 391 intensive care units

  Crystalloid   Colloid   Blood  
  Given
N = 1,468
Not given
N = 3,020
P -value Given
N = 2,173
Not given
N = 2,315
P -value Given
N = 1,249
Not given
N = 3,239
P -value
Indication for fluid          
Impaired perfusion or low cardiac output, n = 1,743% (N) 48.0 (739) 34.3 (1,004) < 0.001 41.6 (899) 35.6 (844) < 0.001 27.0 (330) 42.7 (1,413) < 0.001
Anaemia/bleeding/coagulopathy, n = 822% (N) 4.9 (68) 23.1 (754)   5.5 (119) 29.0 (703)   49.5 (717) 3.9 (105)  
Other fluid losses, n = 131% (N) 3.4 (49) 2.8 (82)   2.9 (64) 3.1 (67)   2.3 (23) 3.2 (108)  
Unit protocol, n = 294% (N) 5.9 (74) 8.2 (220)   9.9 (201) 4.9 (93)   3.8 (36) 8.7 (258)  
Abnormal vital signs, n = 1,266% (N) 33.5 (483) 26.0 (783)   34.9 (751) 21.9 (515)   8.5 (100) 35.5 (1,166)  
Other, n = 191% (N) 3.1 (44) 5.3 (147)   5.8 (117) 3.3 (74)   2.9 (32) 5.2 (159)  
Fluid prescriber          
ICU Specialist/consultant, n = 1,495% (N) 35.0 (482) 36.3 (1,013) < 0.001 35.2 (690) 36.6 (805) 0.2 40.3 (486) 34.3 (1,009) < 0.001
ICU Registrar, n = 1,368% (N) 27.1 (353) 31.7 (1,015)   30.9 (710) 29.6 (658)   30.2 (395) 30.3 (973)  
ICU Resident/junior staff, n = 1,063% (N) 21.4 (431) 20.5 (632)   21.4 (497) 20.2 (566)   19.9 (235) 21.1 (828)  
Other, n = 562% (N) 14.6 (202) 11.9 (360)   12.5 (276) 13.0 (286)   10.8 (133) 13.5 (429)  
Cardiac failure SOFA < 3, n = 2,973% (N)    0.1    0.08    0.2
  SOFA 3+, n = 1,443% (N) 25.6 (459) 27.9 (984)   27.6 (706) 26.6 (737)   28.0 (429) 26.8 (1014)  
Respiratory failure SOFA < 3, n = 2,793% (N)    0.01    0.02    0.1
  SOFA 3+, n = 1,471% (N) 31.4 (420) 34.6 (1,051)   34.7 (774) 32.4 (697)   34.8 (436) 33.2 (1035)  
Renal replacement therapy No, n = 4,048% (N)    0.02    0.3    < 0.001
  Yes, n = 417% (N) 8.7 (103) 10.2 (314)   9.5 (233) 10.1 (184)   10.9 (175) 9.3 (242)  
Mechanical ventilation No, n = 1,568% (N)    0.04    0.1    0.02
  Yes, n = 2,907% (N) 60.5 (910) 62.8 (1,997)   62.9 (1,438) 61.2 (1,469)   63.5 (845) 61.5 (2,062)  
Low filling pressure** No, n = 1,448% (N)    0.001    0.8    0.1
  Yes, n = 1,277% (N) 52.7 (430) 45.7 (847)   47.6 (652) 47.7 (625)   45.9 (331) 48.3 (946)  
Metabolic acidosis** No, n = 3,062% (N)    0.02    0.7    0.9
  Yes, n = 800% (N) 18.8 (279) 17.3 (521)   17.4 (372) 18.0 (428)   17.5 (243) 17.8 (557)  
Lactate (mmol/L)** < 2, n = 1,851% (N)    0.3    0.6    0.07
  2+, n = 1,222% (N) 37.0 (441) 36.5 (781)   36.9 (554) 36.5 (668)   37.2 (391) 36.5 (831)  
Heart rate (mean, b/min) 95 94 0.07 94 94 0.8 93 94 0.9
Mean arterial pressure (mean, mmHg) 76 77 0.3 75 78 < 0.001 79 76 < 0.001
Haemoglobin (mean, g/L) 100 97 < 0.001 100 96 < 0.001 92 100 < 0.001
Creatinine (mean, umol/L) 148 142 0.06 141 147 0.002 146 143 0.2
Bilirubin** (mean, umol/L) 38 39 0.96 39 38 0.7 45 40 0.1
Albumin** (mean, g/L) 27 27 0.9 27 27 0.3 27 27 0.9
Urine output** (mean, ml/kg/hr) 2.0 1.8 0.1 1.8 1.8 0.99 2.0 1.8 0.02
Fluid output** (mean, ml/kg/hr) 2.9 2.8 0.9 2.8 2.8 0.6 3.1 2.7 0.008
  1. P-values highlighted where < 0.1 and hence eligible to be included in multivariate analysis.
  2. Proportions and means adjusted for repeated measures in individuals with more than one episode of fluid resuscitation. Proportions do not include missing values. Numbers do not necessarily add to totals due to missing values.
  3. **Variables have > 10% missing values