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Table 2 Changes over the four study periods

From: Survival trends in critically ill HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

Variable 1996 to 1997 (n = 24, 8.5%) 1998 to 2000 (n = 76, 26.8%) 2001 to 2003 (n = 91, 32%) 2004 to 2005 (n = 93, 32.7%) P value
Mean age (years) 35 (30 to 41) 40 (35 to 48) 43 (36 to 49) 44 (40 to 50) 0.0002
African ethnicity 6 (25) 11 (14.5) 26 (28.6) 34 (36.6) 0.01
Co-morbidities      
   Hepatic cirrhosis 1 (4.2) 11 (14.5) 10 (11) 6 (6.4) 0.24
   Chronic hepatitis C infection 2 (8.3) 19 (25) 23 (25.3) 12 (12.9) 0.03
   Chronic hepatitis B infection 3 (12.5) 16 (21) 15 (16.5) 16 (17.2) 0.76
   Homeless 0 4 (5.3) 8 (8.8) 14 (15) 0.05
HIV-related characteristics      
   Time from diagnosis (months) 46 (2 to 125) 70 (3 to 147) 74 (6 to 135) 81 (6 to 170) 0.42
   HAART administrationa 9 (37.5) 40 (52.6) 52 (57.1) 49 (52.7) 0.39
   New HIV diagnosisb 6 (25) 17 (22.4) 18 (20.2) 15 (17) 0.77
   CD4+ cell count >200/mm3 6 (26.1) 26 (35.1) 23 (27.7) 30 (36.1) 0.55
Direct admission to the ICU 16 (66.7) 31 (40.8) 40 (44) 44 (47.3) 0.15
Main reason for ICU admissions      
   Sepsis 7 (29.2) 15 (19.7) 23 (25.3) 23 (24.7) 0.74
   Bacterial pneumonia 7 (29.2) 25 (32.9) 32 (35.2) 30 (32.3) 0.94
   Pneumocystis pneumonia 4 (16.7) 17 (22.4) 14 (15.4) 18 (19.3) 0.69
   Cerebral toxoplasmosis 1 (4.2) 4 (5.3) 5 (5.5) 6 (6.4) 0.97
   SAPS II 53 (33 to 60) 44 (31 to 57) 46 (32 to 55) 48 (35 to 61) 0.44
Life-supporting procedures      
   Mechanical ventilation 14 (58.3) 38 (50) 40 (44) 32 (34.4) 0.08
   Renal replacement therapy 3 (12.5) 8 (10.5) 13 (14.3) 7 (7.5) 0.52
   Vasopressors 8 (33.3) 18 (23.7) 21 (23) 17 (18.3) 0.46
   ICU mortality 6 (25) 13 (17.1) 12 (13.2) 8 (8.6) 0.01
  1. Data presented as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage). HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; ICU, intensive care unit; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiological Score version II. aHAART administration prescribed for more than 30 days before ICU admission. bDiagnosis of HIV infection within past 60 days.