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Table 1 Characteristics of the 284 HIV-positive patients admitted to the ICU between 1996 and 2005

From: Survival trends in critically ill HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

Variable Survived the ICU (n = 245) Died in the ICU (n = 39) Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) P value
Age 42.6 (36.4 to 48.6) 41.3(36.1 to 49) 1 (0.9 to 1) 0.9
Males 176 (71.8) 27(69.2) 0.9 (0.4 to 1.8) 0.74
Period of ICU admission     
   1996 to 1997 18 (7.3) 6 (15.4) Ref -
   1998 to 2000 63 (25.7) 13 (33.3) 0.62 (0.21 to 1.86) 0.39
   2001 to 2003 79 (32.2) 12 (30.8) 0.46 (0.15 to 1.38) 0.16
   2004 to 2005 85 (34.7) 8 (20.5) 0.28 (0.09 to 0.91) 0.03
Co-morbidities     
   COPD 12 (4.9) 3 (7.7) 1.6 (0.4 to 6.1) 0.5
   Hepatic cirrhosis 19 (7.8) 9 (23) 3.6 (1.5 to 8.6) 0.005
   Chronic C hepatitis infection 45 (18.4) 11(28.2) 1.7 (0.8 to 3.8) 0.1
   Chronic B hepatitis infection 41 (16.7) 9 (23.1) 1.5 (0.7 to 3.4) 0.3
   Chronic renal failure 18 (7.3) 1 (2.6) 0.3 (0.04 to 2.6) 0.3
   Kaposi sarcoma 23 (9.4) 9 (23.1) 2.9 (1.2 to 6.8) 0.01
   Psychiatric disorders 77 (31.4) 8 (20.5) 0.56 (0.25 to 1.3) 0.2
   Homeless 22 (9) 4 (10.3) 1.2 (0.4 to 3.6) 0.8
HIV-related characteristics     
   Time since HIV diagnosis (months) 70.5 (4 to 146) 88 (13 to 149.5) 1 (0.9 to 1) 0.7
   HIV diagnosis within past 60 days 51 (21.1) 5 (14.3) 0.6 (0.2 to 1.7) 0.3
   CD4+ cell count 96 (23.5 to 289) 65 (32 to 287) 0.9 (0.9 to 1) 0.5
   CD4+ cell count <200 162 (66.2) 27 (68.7) 1.12 (0.51 to 2.5) 0.77
Previous opportunistic infections 121 (49.4) 18 (46.1) 0.9 (0.4 to 1.7) 0.7
   Viral load (× 1,000 log10/ml) 53.8 (0.5 to 252) 28.1 (0 to 10825) 1 0.2
   On HAART at ICU admissiona 125 (51) 25 (64.1) 1.7 (0.8 to 3.4) 0.13
   Viral replication controlled 58 (46.4) 10 (43.5) 0.9 (0.4 to 2.2) 0.8
   Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis 79 (32.2) 15 (38.4) 1.3 (0.6 to 2.6) 0.4
ICU admission     
   Direct ICU admission 135 (55.1) 15 (38.5) 0.51 (0.25 to 1.02) 0.05
   Hospital to ICU admission (days) 0 (0 to 2) 1 (0 to 8) 1.05/day (1.01 to 1.08) 0.01
Main reason for ICU admission     
   Acute respiratory failure 145 (59.2) 22 (56.4) 0.9 (0.4 to 1.8) 0.7
   Coma 71 (28.9) 20 (51.3) 2.6 (1.3 to 5.1) 0.006
   Sepsisb 48 (19.6) 20 (51.3) 4.3 (2.1 to 8.7) 0.0001
   Shockc 34 (13.9) 25 (64.1) 11.1 (5.2 to 23.4) 0.0001
   Renal failure 32 (13.1) 15 (38.5) 4.2 (2 to 8.8) 0.0002
   Metabolic abnormalities 19 (7.8) 13 (33.3) 5.9 (2.6 to 13.4) 0.0001
   Liver failure 9 (3.7) 14 (35.9) 14.7 (5.8 to 37.3) 0.0001
Definite diagnoses     
   Infection 103 (42) 26 (66.7) 2.8 (1.3 to 5.6) 0.005
   Septic shockd 12 (4.9) 20 (51.3) 20.4 (8.7 to 48) 0.0001
   Bacterial pneumonia 84 (34.3) 10 (25.6) 0.7 (0.3 to 1.4) 0.3
   Pneumocystis pneumonia 50 (20.4) 3 (7.7) 0.3 (0.1 to 1.1) 0.07
   Cerebral toxoplasmosis 15 (6.1) 2 (2.6) 0.4 (0.05 to 3.1) 0.4
   Status epilepticus 19 (7.8) 3 (7.7) 1 (0.3 to 3.5) 0.9
   Meningitis 18 (7.3) 2 (5.1) 0.7 (0.1 to 3.1) 0.6
   Cerebral hemorrhage 4 (1.6) 5 (12.8) 8.9 (2.3 to 34.6) 0.002
   Multiple organ failure 5 (2) 24 (61.5) 76.8 (25.7 to 229.7) 0.0001
   Macrophage activation syndrome 10 (4) 6(15.4) 4.27 (1.5 to 12.5) 0.008
Life-supporting procedures     
   Mechanical ventilation 86 (35.1) 38 (97.4) 70.2 (9.5 to 521) 0.0001
   Renal replacement therapy 17 (6.4) 14 (35.9) 7.5 (3.3 to 17) 0.0001
   Vasopressors 33 (13.5) 31 (79.5) 24.9 (10.5 to 59) 0.0001
   Duration of life support (days) 0 (0 to 3) 3 (1 to 7.7) 1.07 (1.02 to 1.1) 0.002
  1. Data presented as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage). ICU, intensive care unit; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy. aOn HAART at ICU admission for >30 days. bDefined as clinically or microbiologically documented infection with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. cDefined as systolic arterial pressure <80 mmHg despite adequate fluid resuscitation. dDefined as sepsis-induced hypotension persisting despite adequate fluid resuscitation.