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Table 5 Conditions associated with hyperchloraemia in the intensive care unit

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Chloride in critical illness

Chloride infusion
   Administration of chloride-rich fluids
   Total parenteral nutrition
Pure water loss
   Skin losses
   Hypermetabolic states
   Renal losses
   Central diabetes insipidus
   Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Water loss in excess of chloride loss
   Extrarenal loss
   Renal loss
   Osmotic diuresis
   Post-obstructive diuresis
   Intrinsic renal disease
Definite or relative increase in tubular chloride reabsorption
   Renal tubular acidosis
   Recovery of diabetic ketoacidosis
   Early renal failure
   Ureteral diversion procedures
   Post hypocapnia