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Table 3 Examples of chloride channels

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Chloride in critical illness

Channel Mechanism of regulation Physiological role
CFTR channels Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation Cl- secretion in airways, submucosal glands, pancreas, intestine and testis; Cl- absorption in sweat glands
CIC-1 channels Depolarization Cl- conductance in skeletal muscle; repolarization after action potential
CIC-2 channels Hyperpolarization and cell swelling Cl- homeostasis in neurons
Calcium-activated chloride channels Cystosolic Ca2+ Cl- transport in retinal pigment epithelium; Cl- secretion in epithelia, neurons, cardiac muscles and erythrocytes; smooth muscle contraction
GABAA channels GABAA Inhibition of synaptic transmission in the brain
Glycine channels Glycine, β-alanine and taurine Inhibition of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord
Volume-sensitive chloride channels Cell volume changes Restoration of cell volume
  1. CFTR, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; CIC, voltage-gated chloride channel; GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid.