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Table 3 Distribution of perioperative variables according to the presence of post-CPB left ventricular dysfunction

From: Preoperative diastolic function predicts the onset of left ventricular dysfunction following aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients with aortic stenosis

  No LV dysfunction (n = 56) With LV dysfunction (n = 38) P value
Preoperative clinical and biological variables
Age (y) 66 (9) 74 (10) 0.004
Male Gender (%) 61.8 66.7 0.288
Body Mass Index (kg/m 2 ) 28 (5) 27 (6) 0.281
Hypertension (%) 85.1 82.3 0.654
Diabetes Mellitus (%) 30.9 27.5 0.745
Coronary Artery Disease (%) 29.1 38.5 0.412
Peripheral Vascular Disease (%) 12.1 10.9 0.511
Dyslipemia (%) 71.8 54.5 0.098
Renal Insufficiency 1 (%) 3.6 5.2 0.532
Anemia 2 (%) 7.1 10.1 0.789
Beta-blockers (%) 49.1 61.5 0.295
ACE Inhibitors or AII antagonists (%) 20.1 35.9 0.352
Calcium channel antagonists (%) 23.6 33.3 0.101
Diuretics (%) 21.9 17.9 0.796
Nitrate (%) 12.7 17.9 0.562
LV Ejection Fraction (%) 56 (8) 49 (11) 0.001
Parsonnet score (u) 15 (9) 21 (9) 0.001
Intraoperative echocardiographic data    
LV Mass Index (g/m 2 ) 135 (34) 140 (29) 0.188
LV Fractional Area Changes (%) 54 (14) 46 (14) 0.015
LV Septal Thickness (mm) 16 (3) 17 (4) 0.899
Transmitral E/A ratio 1.2 (0.6) 1.3 (0.7) 0.415
Deceleration Time (ms) 181 (81) 158 (65) 0.173
Isovolemic Relaxation Time (ms) 108 (30) 106 (32) 0.897
PV S/D ratio 1.2 (0.4) 1.1 (0.5) 0.067
PV Ar (ms) 14 (9) 16 (7) 0.198
E'/A' lateral 1.0 (0.5) 0.9 (0.5) 0.736
E'/A' septal 1.0 (0.4) 1.0 (0.6) 0.716
Vp (cm/s) 53 (11) 37 (7) <0.001
Diastolic Functional Class    <0.001
   Normal (%) 26.8 0  
   Impaired Relaxation (%) 50.0 34.2  
   Pseudo-normalization (%) 23.2 42.1  
   Restrictive pattern (%) 0.0 23.7  
Surgical variables 11 16  
Type of Procedure (%)    0.280
   Isolated Valve Replacement 65.9 51.1  
   Associated Coronary Artery Bypass 21.6 34.1  
   Associated Aortic Root Replacement 12.5 14.8  
Aortic Clamping Time (minutes) 77 (28) 98 (40) 0.010
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Time (minutes) 101 (33) 135 (57) 0.004
Indexed Effective Orifice Area 1.05 (0.11) 0.98 (0.13) 0.634
  1. LV, left ventricular; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass.
  2. *P < 0.05, between the two groups; χ2 test with Yates correction or unpaired Student t test.
  3. LV, left ventricule; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; AII, angiotensin II; PV Ar, pulmonary vein atrial reversal velocity; PV S/D, ratio of peak systolic to diastolic pulmonary vein flow velocities; E'/A', ratio of early to late diastolic velocities of the mitral annulus determined by tissue Doppler imaging.
  4. 1Renal insufficency defined as creatinine clearance <10 ml/minute.
  5. 2Anemia defined as Hemoglobin <110 g/L in female and <120 g/L in male.