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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients enrolled in the study

From: Early alterations of the innate and adaptive immune statuses in sepsis according to the type of underlying infection

  Acute pyeloneprhitis CAP Intraabdominal infections Primary bacteremia VAP/HAP P
Total number 183 97 100 61 64  
Male/female 86/97 61/36 51/39 41/20 41/23 0.011
Age (years, mean ± SD) 67.3 ± 17.1 68.4 ± 19.7 54.1 ± 24.5 64.0 ± 16.3 70.6 ± 14.5 <0.0001
APACHE II (mean ± SD) 11.7 ± 6.8 15.7 ± 8.8 12.7 ± 7.7 18.2 ± 7.5 20.0 ± 5.4 <0.0001
White blood cells (/μl, mean ± SD) 15684.3 ± 11481.3 15002.2 ± 7272.8 15595.7 ± 7027.8 13755.9 ± 9551.8 13905.7 ± 8289.2 NS
Sepsis/severe sepsis-shock 141/42 56/41 70/30 23/38 22/42 <0.0001
Death (number, %) 14 (7.7) 30 (30.9) 16 (16.0) 21 (34.4) 22 (34.4) <0.0001
Pathogen* (number, %)       0.039
Escherichia coli 71 (38.7) - 3 (3.0) 12 (19.7) 0 (0)  
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18 (9.8) - 3 (3.0) 20 (32.8) 15 (23.5)  
Klebsiella pneumoniae 12 (6.6) - 2 (2.0) 12 (19.7) 0 (0)  
Acinetobacter baumannii 3 (1.6) - 0 (0) 10 (16.3) 14 (21.9)  
Other Gram-negatives 9 (4.9) - 0 (0) 7 (11.5) 1 (1.6)  
Enterococcus faecalis 6 (3.3)    1 (1.6)   
Other Gram(+) cocci 5 (2.7) 7 (7.2) 2 (2.0) 4 (6.5) 0 (0)  
Co-morbidities (number, %)       0.045
Diabetes mellitus type 2 48 (26.2) 19 (19.6) 19 (19.0) 16 (26.2) 14 (21.9)  
Heart failure 23 (12.6) 14 (14.4) 9 (9.0) 13 (21.3) 11 (17.2)  
COPD 15 (8.2) 20 (20.6) 5 (5.0) 8 (13.1) 9 (14.1)  
Chronic renal disease 17 (9.3) 6 (6.2) 3 (3.0) 8 (13.1) 7 (10.9)  
  1. *isolated from blood, urine or quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage and or tracheobronchial secretions;
  2. APACHE: acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; CAP: community-acquired pneumonia; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HAP: hospital-acquired pneumonia; NS: non-significant; SD: standard deviation; VAP: ventilator-associated pneumonia.