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Table 2 Neuropsychological test outcomes (mean ± SD) at 0 (baseline), 2 and 8 hours after LPS administration

From: Endotoxemia-induced inflammation and the effect on the human brain

  LPS group (n = 15) Reference group (n = 10) P value (between group)
Age
(Dutch) STAI total
22.8 ± 2.2 25.5 ± 2.5 0.87*
  32.7 ± 1.5 29.1 ± 3.7 0.13*
Neuropsychological test t = 0 t = 2 t = 8 P value (within group) t = 0 t = 2 t = 8 P value (within group)  
Stroop A (in seconds) 1 39 ± 2 35 ± 2 35 ± 2 0.0001 37 ± 5 34 ± 4 34 ± 4 0.001 0.49
Stroop B (in seconds) 1 51 ± 3 45 ± 3 43 ± 2 0.0001 48 ± 7 44 ± 7 43 ± 7 0.001 0.45
Stroop C (in seconds) 1 75 ± 6 65 ± 4 64 ± 4 0.003 67 ± 10 62 ± 12 61 ± 11 0.004 0.23
Pasat 2 49 ± 2 50 ± 2 56 ± 2 0.001 50 ± 7 54 ± 4 54 ± 5 0.031 0.07
Digits forward 2 11 ± 1 12 ± 1 11 ± 1 0.115 10 ± 2 11 ± 1 11 ± 2 0.235 0.81
Digits backward 2 8 ± 1 9 ± 1 9 ± 1 0.30 9 ± 2 9 ± 1 9 ± 2 0.454 0.65
Digits total 2 19 ± 1 20 ± 1 20 ± 1 0.066 19 ± 4 20 ± 3 21 ± 4 0.203 0.63
Pegboard 1 64 ± 2 59 ± 2 61 ± 2 0.037 58 ± 5 56 ± 6 56 ± 7 0.362 0.35
Symbol substitution task2 87 ± 3 99 ± 4 101 ± 3 0.0001 98 ± 14 108 ± 17 112 ± 19 0.0001 0.53
  1. All values are means ± SD unless other reported.
  2. * Unpaired T-test.
  3. 1 Decrease indicates an improvement of the test.
  4. 2 Increase indicates an improvement of the test.
  5. Reading speed was measured by Stroop A-B-C word naming test.
  6. Attention under time pressure was measured by the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT).
  7. Working memory was tested in numbers with the Digits forward and backward test.
  8. The fine motor control was tested with the Grooved Pegboard test.
  9. Psychomotor speed capacity was measured by the symbol substitution task.
  10. LPS, lipopolysaccharide; SD, standard deviation; STAI, Dutch State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale.