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Table 3 Nutritional outcomes

From: Enhanced protein-energy provision via the enteral route in critically ill patients: a single center feasibility trial of the PEP uP protocol

  Before
(n = 20)
After
(n = 30)
P-value
Adequacy of calories from total nutrition †‡ 0.23
Mean ± SD 71.7% ± 32.5% 80.3% ± 27.0%  
Adequacy of protein from total nutrition †‡ 0.13
Mean ± SD 61.2% ± 29.3% 73.6% ± 28.6%  
Adequacy of calories from EN 0.23
Mean ± SD 58.8% ± 31.4% 70.2% ± 26.3%  
Adequacy of protein from EN 0.08
Mean ± SD 61.2% ± 29.3% 76.1% ± 25.5%  
Type of nutrition 0.16
EN only 18 (90.0%) 29 (96.7%)  
PN only 0 1 (3.3%)  
EN + PN 2 (10.0%) 0  
Initiation of EN 0.96
Prior to ICU admission 1 (5.0%) 2 (7.1%)  
0 to 24 15 (75.0%) 21 (75.0%)  
>24 to 48 4 (20.0%) 3 (10.7%)  
>48 to 72 0 1 (3.6%)  
>72 0 1 (3.6%)  
Time of initiation of EN (hours) 0.72
Mean ± SD 16.0 ± 13.8 17.7 ± 16.9  
Use of motility agents (patient-day level) 0.70
n/N (%) 78/192 (40.6%) 104/243 (42.8%)  
Use of motility agents (patient level) 0.11
n/N (%) 11/20 (55.0%) 24/30 (80%)  
Started motility agents on the first ICU day¶ 0.03
n/N (%) 0 7/30 (23.3%)  
Use of supplemental protein 0.08
n/N (%) 7/20 (35.0%) 19/30 (63.3%)  
Started supplemental protein on the first ICU day£ 0.007
n/N (%) 0 9/30 (30.0%)  
Morning blood glucose (mmol/l) 1.0
mean ± SD 8.0 ± 0.9 8.1 ± 1.0  
%Patient-days with blood glucose>10 mmol/l 0.60
mean ± SD 16.4% ± 10.1% 16.2% ± 12.8%  
  1. † includes propofol, EN, and PN when there is a contraindication for EN
  2. ‡ includes the first seven ICU days only
  3. ¶ The average duration of use of motility agents is 5.9 days in the after group.
  4. £ The average duration of use of supplemental protein is four days in the after group.
  5. SD, standard deviation; EN, enteral nutrition; PN, parenteral nutrition; ICU, intensive care unit