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Table 3 Predicted cost-utilities in subgroups of patients with acute respiratory failure

From: One-year mortality, quality of life and predicted life-time cost-utility in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure

  n Gained survival (years) QALYs (years) Cost/hospital survivor Cost/QALY
   mean (SD) mean (SD)
Age (years)      
   ≤ 51 252 36 (19) 25 (16) 19,195 670
   52-63 236 17 (11) 11 (8) 21,069 1,582
   64-74 251 9 (8) 6 (6) 21,499 2,620
   ≥ 75 219 4 (5) 3 (3) 21,737 5,263
SAPS II (points)      
   ≤ 31 253 28 (18) 20 (15) 15,187 726
   32-43 246 18 (16) 11 (12) 22,545 1,656
   44-55 222 13 (15) 8 (11) 23,565 2,026
   ≥ 56 237 8 (13) 5 (9) 24,760 2,560
Activities of daily life      
   Able to work 482 23 (19) 16 (14) 19,718 1,028
   Unable to work but needs no help 337 12 (13) 8 (9) 21,665 2,075
   Needs some help 113 8 (12) 5 (9) 21,512 2,722
   Needs help to activities of daily life 17 8 (15) 5 (12) 30,653 3,450
Admission type      
   Elective 133 16 (14) 12 (12) 17,273 1,283
   Emergency 821 17 (18) 11 (13) 21,462 1,410
Ventilatory support      
   NIV only 105 15 (17) 11 (14) 13,154 956
   Invasive ventilation only 775 17 (17) 12 (13) 20,065 1,313
   NIV and invasive ventilation before 6 hours 43 11 (16) 6 (9) 42,625 3,733
   NIV and invasive ventilation after 6 hours 35 13 (17) 8 (11) 44,971 3,499
Chronic diseases, count      
   0 425 23 (19) 16 (15) 19,065 966
   1 320 13 (15) 8 (11) 22,583 1,936
   2 158 10 (11) 7 (9) 21,699 2,337
   3 47 9 (9) 6 (6) 24,400 3,102
   4 8 8 (9) 4 (5) 34,108 3,910
ARF risk factors 48 hours before      
   Sepsis 136 14 (15) 9 (12) 37,219 2,599
   Cardiac insufficiency 192 9 (12) 6 (8) 27,322 2,779
   Pneumonia 114 14 (16) 9 (12) 26,368 2,106
   Post-operative with ventilatory support < 1 day 132 17 (15) 12 (12) 11,025 836
  1. Chronic diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic restrictive pulmonary disease, chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, immunodeficiency, neuromuscular disease.
  2. ARF, acute respiratory failure; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SD, standard deviation; QALY, quality-adjusted life year.