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Table 5 Biomarkers related to vascular endothelial damage identified in the literature search (with some selected references)

From: Sepsis biomarkers: a review

Sepsis marker Evaluated in experimental studies Evaluated in clinical studies Evaluated as a prognostic factor Comment
ADAMTS-13 [124, 125] B Decreased in septic patients with DIC compared with no DIC
Angiopoietin (1 and 2) [126]   B Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
Endocan [127, 128] B Predicted development of septic shock
Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM)-1 (cellular and soluble) [129, 130] B(s) √* Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
Endothelial progenitor cells (cEPC) [131]   B Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (soluble) [38] B(m)  
Laminin [132]   A   Increased in sepsis compared with non-infected controls
Neopterin [133, 134] C √* Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB [135]   B Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days in patients with severe sepsis
E-Selectin (cellular and soluble) [123, 136] C Predicted development of MOF, correlated with SAPS score
L-Selectin (soluble) [137]   C √* Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days
P-Selectin [138]    
Vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 [139, 140] C   Predicted development of MOF
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [141, 142] A Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, predicted development of MOF
von Willebrand factor and antigen [143, 144]   B(m) Distinguished between survivors and non-survivors at 28 days, predicted development of acute lung injury
  1. *sensitivity and specificity of less than 90%; A, Clinical study with less than 20 patients; B, Clinical study with 20 to 50 patients; C, Clinical study with more than 50 patients; (s), surgical patients only; (m), medical patients only.
  2. DIC: disseminated intravascular coagulopathy; MOF: meultiple organ failure; SAPS: simplified acute physiology score.