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Table 1 Table of biomarkers

From: Clinical review: The role of biomarkers in the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia

  Widely available biomarkers Potential future biomarkers
Biomarkers of inflammation Tumor necrosis factor alpha IL-1β
  Lactate IL-6
   IL-10
Biomarkers of coagulation Activated partial thromboplastin time Protein C
  Platelets D-dimer
  Fibrinogen Thrombin-antithrombin complexes
  Disseminated intravascular coagulation scores Prothrombin fragment 1.2
   Activated partial thromboplastin time waveform analysis
Biomarkers of infection C-reactive protein Adrenomedullin
  Procalcitonin Pro-adrenomedullin
  Blood urea nitrogen B-type natriuretic peptide
  Leukocytes Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1)
  Endotoxin High mobility group box-1
  PCR  
Biomarkers of stress Cortisol Copeptin