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Table 2 Comparisons of demographic data and clinical parameters between early and late dialysis groups (n = 98)

From: Late initiation of renal replacement therapy is associated with worse outcomes in acute kidney injury after major abdominal surgery

  Early dialysis (n = 51) Late dialysis (n = 47) P value
Demographic data    
   Female 19 (37.3) 22(46.8) 0.414
   Diabetes 14 (27.5) 17 (36.2) 0.391
   Hypertension 22 (43.1) 20 (42.6) 1.000
   Cardiac failure 6 (11.8) 4 (8.5) 0.743
   Chronic kidney disease 28 (54.9) 13 (27.7) 0.008
   Sepsis before RRT 14 (27.5) 17 (36.2) 0.391
   Emergency surgery 23 (45.1) 19 (40.4) 0.686
   CVVH 26 (51.0) 31 (66.0) 0.155
   Mechanical ventilation 39 (76.5) 40 (85.1) 0.316
   Age (years) 65.0 ± 14.8 68.0 ± 13.0 0.284
   Old age (> 65 years) 27 (52.9) 30 (63.8) 0.310
   Hospital stay (days) 53.7 ± 39.2 54.2 ± 33.6 0.944
   Hospital admission to ICU (days) 10.3 ± 15.5 12.6 ± 13.0 0.423
   Hospital admission to RRT (days) 17.5 ± 20.3 21.0 ± 19.0 0.388
   ICU to RRT (days) 7.3 ± 13.2 8.4 ± 13.6 0.679
   RRT to death/discharge (days) 35.5 ± 29.0 33.1 ± 26.2 0.671
   Baseline creatinine (mg/dl) 2.1 ± 1.7 1.3 ± 0.6 0.003
   Baseline GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 47.7 ± 27.2 60.6 ± 28.5 0.024
Operation sites a    0.592
   Hepatobiliary system 13 (25.5) 13 (27.7)  
   Upper GI 13 (25.5) 15 (31.9)  
   Lower GI 15 (29.4) 14 (29.8)  
   Urologic system 7 (13.7) 2 (4.3)  
   Other sites 3 (5.9) 3 (6.4)  
Data at ICU admission    
   Diuretics 43 (84.3) 35 (74.5) 0.316
   Vasopressors 27 (52.9) 25 (53.2) 1.000
   Inotropic equivalent 7.80 ± 12.63 5.96 ± 9.87 0.426
   Hematocrit (%) 29.3 ± 7.3 31.5 ± 5.5 0.105
   BUN (mg/dl) 50.9 ± 33.0 41.9 ± 27.0 0.143
   Creatinine (mg/dl) 2.9 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.4 0.137
   GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 39.5 ± 50.0 38.6 ± 26.7 0.917
   Albumin (g/dl) 2.8 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 0.231
   Potassium (mEq/l) 4.2 ± 0.7 4.1 ± 0.7 0.552
   PaO2/FiO2 281.1 ± 112.1 273.0 ± 1 20.9 0.732
   GCS scores 13.4 ± 3.3 12.6 ± 3.8 0.304
   APACHE II scores 18.2 ± 5.4 18.8 ± 6.3 0.620
   SOFA scores 8.3 ± 2.7 8.5 ± 3.7 0.767
Pre-RRT data    
   Hematocrit (%) 28.5 ± 4.8 29.4 ± 5.0 0.374
   BUN (mg/dl) 68.8 ± 39.4 81.9 ± 39.3 0.104
   Creatinine (mg/dl) 3.3 ± 1.8 3.8 ± 1.3 0.188
   GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 32.8 ± 50.3 17.5 ± 7.8 0.036
   Albumin (g/dl) 2.8 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.7 0.722
   Potassium (mEq/l) 4.2 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 0.7 0.740
   PaO2/FiO2 300.3 ± 112.1 280.2 ± 119.5 0.395
   GCS scores 12.5 ± 3.9 11.3 ± 4.5 0.160
   APACHE II scores 18.2 ± 6.1 20.5 ± 5.8 0.061
   SOFA scores 9.4 ± 3.1 10.5 ± 3.8 0.114
Indications for RRT    
   Azotemia with uremic symptomsb 19 (37.3) 23 (48.9) 0.308
   Oliguria or anuriac 23 (45.1) 17 (36.2) 0.415
   Fluid overload or pulmonary edemad 4 (7.8) 6 (12.8) 0.513
   Hyperkalemia or acidosise 8 (15.7) 6 (12.8) 0.717
Hospital mortality 22 (43.1) 35 (74.5) 0.002
RRT wean-off 21 (41.2) 10 (21.3) 0.050
  1. Early dialysis group, RIFLE-0 (n = 22) and --R (n = 29); Late dialysis group, RIFLE-I (n = 27) and --F (n = 20).
  2. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage) unless otherwise stated. aupper GI denotes duodenum and above, lower GI means jejunum and below, other sites denote surgery site besides previous four; b azotemia was defined as BUN > 80 mg/dL and creatinine > 2 mg/dL; coliguria was defined as urine output < 200 ml/8 hours refractory to diuretics; dfluid overload means CVP > 12 mmHg, while pulmonary edema denotes PaO2/FiO2 < 300 mmHg; e hyperkalemia denotes serum potassium > 5.5 mmol/L, acidosis denotes pH < 7.2 in arterial blood.
  3. APACHE II = Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; BMI = body mass index; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CVP = central venous pressure; CVVH = continuous venovenous hemofiltration; FiO2 = fraction of inspired oxygen; GCS = Glascow Coma Scale; GFR = glomerular filtration rate; GI = gastrointestinal; ICU = intensive care unit; MAP = mean arterial pressure; PaO2 = partial pressure of arterial oxygen; RRT = renal replacement therapy; SOFA = Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; WBC = white blood cell.